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      Involvement of Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Development of Anti-Thy-1 Nephritis


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          To study an involvement of glomerular endothelial cells in the development of anti-Thy-1 nephritis, we examined the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules during the course of this model. Ribonuclease protection assay elucidated that expression of mRNA for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was markedly enhanced in the glomeruli with a peak at 2 h (6.5-fold, p < 0.05) after the anti-Thy-1 antibody injection when mesangial cell lysis was recognized and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in the glomeruli. The glomerular ICAM-1 was predominantly localized in the endothelial cells and was intensely immunostained at day 1 in the glomerular endothelial cells. In contrast, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and vascular endothelial-cadherin mRNA expression increased gradually with a peak at day 6 (2.6-fold (p < 0.05) and 4.2-fold (p < 0.05), respectively) in the glomeruli with mesangial proliferative lesion. PECAM-1 was also immunolocalized in the glomerular endothelial cells and the immunoreactivity was greatly enhanced at day 6. Glomerular expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) was unchanged at a low level during the course of anti-Thy-1 nephritis. Blocking of ICAM-1 by administration of anti-ICAM-1 antibody showed significant decrease in the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes accumulating in the glomeruli by 45.7% (9.4 ± 0.2 vs. 5.1 ± 0.1 per glomerular cross section, p < 0.01) at 2 h. These results suggest a significant involvement of glomerular endothelial cells in the development and repair of anti-Thy-1 nephritis via direct or indirect intercellular interactions between mesangial cells and glomerular endothelial cells.

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          Most cited references5

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          VCAM-1 on activated endothelium interacts with the leukocyte integrin VLA-4 at a site distinct from the VLA-4/fibronectin binding site.

          Cytokine-activated human endothelial cells express vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which binds lymphocytes. We now identify the integrin VLA-4 as a receptor for VCAM-1 because VLA-4 surface expression on K-562 cells (following transfection of the VLA alpha 4 subunit cDNA) resulted in specific cell adhesion to VCAM-1, and anti-VLA-4 antibodies completely inhibited VCAM-1-dependent cell-cell attachment. In addition, VLA-4 expression allowed K-562 cells to attach to the heparin II binding region (FN-40) of fibronectin. However, VLA-4/VCAM-1 and VLA-4/FN-40 interactions are readily distinguishable: only the former was inhibited by the anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody HP1/3, and only the latter was inhibited by soluble FN-40. The VCAM-1/VLA-4 ligand-receptor pair may play a major role in the recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes to inflammatory sites in vivo.
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            The molecular organization of endothelial cell to cell junctions: differential association of plakoglobin, beta-catenin, and alpha- catenin with vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin)

            In this paper we report that the assembly of interendothelial junctions containing the cell type-specific vascular endothelial cadherin (VE- cadherin or cadherin-5) is a dynamic process which is affected by the functional state of the cells. Immunofluorescence double labeling of endothelial cells (EC) cultures indicated that VE-cadherin, alpha- catenin, and beta-catenin colocalized in areas of cell to cell contact both in sparse and confluent EC monolayers. In contrast, plakoglobin became associated with cell-cell junctions only in tightly confluent cells concomitantly with an increase in its protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the amount of plakoglobin coimmunoprecipitated with VE- cadherin, increased in closely packed monolayers. Artificial wounding of confluent EC monolayers resulted in a major reorganization of VE- cadherin, alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and plakoglobin. All these proteins decreased in intensity at the boundaries of EC migrating into the lesion. In contrast, EC located immediately behind the migrating front retained junctional VE-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin while plakoglobin was absent from these sites. In line with this observation, the amount of plakoglobin coimmunoprecipitated with VE- cadherin decreased in migrating EC. These data suggest that VE- cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin are already associated with each other at early stages of intercellular adhesion and become readily organized at nascant cell contacts. Plakoglobin, on the other hand, associates with junctions only when cells approach confluence. When cells migrate, this order is reversed, namely, plakoglobin dissociates first and, then, VE-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin disassemble from the junctions. The late association of plakoglobin with junctions suggests that while VE-cadherin/alpha-catenin/beta- catenin complex can function as an early recognition mechanism between EC, the formation of mature, cytoskeleton-bound junctions requires plakoglobin synthesis and organization.
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              Migration of monocytes across endothelium and passage through extracellular matrix involve separate molecular domains of PECAM-1

              During the inflammatory response, the adhesion molecule PECAM plays a crucial role in transendothelial migration, the passage of leukocytes across endothelium. We report here an additional role for PECAM in the subsequent migration of monocytes through the subendothelial extracellular matrix. PECAM has six immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily domains. Monoclonal antibodies whose epitopes map to domains 1 and/or 2 selectively block monocyte migration through the endothelial junction, whereas those that map to domain 6 block only the migration through the extracellular matrix, trapping the monocyte between the endothelium and its basal lamina. Therefore, transendothelial migration (diapedesis) and passage through extracellular matrix (interstitial migration) are distinct and separable phases of monocyte emigration. Furthermore, distinct and separate Ig domains of PECAM are involved in mediating these two steps.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                09 October 2002
                : 10
                : 5-6
                : 338-347
                aDepartment of Structural Pathology, Institute of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan; bDepartment of Pediatrics, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan and cDepartment of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif., USA
                65298 Exp Nephrol 2002;10:338–347
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 26 April 1999
                : 17 July 2001
                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 39, Pages: 10
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65298
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/65298
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Glomerular endothelial cell,ICAM-1,Anti-Thy-1 nephritis
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Glomerular endothelial cell, ICAM-1, Anti-Thy-1 nephritis


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