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      Carbohydrate Nutrition, Insulin Resistance, and the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

      , , , , ,

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to examine the relation between carbohydrate-related dietary factors, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. We examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in 2,834 subjects at the fifth examination (1991-1995) of the Framingham Offspring Study. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using the following formula (fasting plasma insulin x plasma glucose)/22.5. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, intakes of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber, and whole grains were inversely associated, whereas glycemic index and glycemic load were positively associated with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower among those in the highest quintile of cereal fiber (odds ratio [OR] 0.62; 95% CI 0.45-0.86) and whole-grain (0.67; 0.48-0.91) intakes relative to those in the lowest quintile category after adjustment for confounding lifestyle and dietary factors. Conversely, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among individuals in the highest relative to the lowest quintile category of glycemic index (1.41; 1.04-1.91). Total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fruit fiber, vegetable fiber, legume fiber, glycemic load, and refined grain intakes were not associated with prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Whole-grain intake, largely attributed to the cereal fiber, is inversely associated with HOMA-IR and a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Dietary glycemic index is positively associated with HOMA-IR and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Given that both a high cereal fiber content and lower glycemic index are attributes of whole-grain foods, recommendation to increase whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults

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            Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption.

            The reproducibility and validity of responses for 55 specific foods and beverages on a self-administered food frequency questionnaire were evaluated. One hundred and seventy three women from the Nurses' Health Study completed the questionnaire twice approximately 12 months apart and also recorded their food consumption for seven consecutive days, four times during the one-year interval. For the 55 foods, the mean of correlation coefficients between frequencies of intake for first versus second questionnaire was 0.57 (range = 0.24 for fruit punch to 0.93 for beer). The mean of correlation coefficients between the dietary records and first questionnaire was 0.44 (range = 0.09 for yellow squash to 0.83 for beer and tea) and between the dietary records and the second questionnaire was 0.52 (range = 0.08 for spinach to 0.90 for tea). Ratios of within- to between-person variance for the 55 foods were computed using the mean four one-week dietary records for each person as replicate measurements. For most foods this ratio was greater than 1.0 (geometric mean of ratios = 1.88), ranging from 0.25 (skimmed milk) to 14.76 (spinach). Correlation coefficients comparing questionnaire and dietary record for the 55 foods were corrected for the within-person variation (mean corrected value = 0.55 for dietary record versus first questionnaire and 0.66 versus the second). Mean daily amounts of each food calculated by the questionnaire and by the dietary record were also compared; the observed differences suggested that responses to the questionnaire tended to over-represent socially desirable foods. This analysis documents the validity and reproducibility of the questionnaire for measuring specific foods and beverages, as well as the large within-person variation for food intake measured by dietary records. Differences in the degree of validity for specific foods revealed in this type of analysis can be useful in improving questionnaire design and in interpreting findings from epidemiological studies that use the instrument.
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              The Framingham Offspring Study. Design and preliminary data.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                January 27 2004
                February 01 2004
                January 27 2004
                February 01 2004
                : 27
                : 2
                : 538-546
                Article
                10.2337/diacare.27.2.538
                14747241
                b4bc8ce0-9e41-4137-872f-18c75d88250d
                © 2004

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