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      Design, synthesis, and antimelanogenic effects of (2-substituted phenyl-1,3-dithiolan-4-yl)methanol derivatives

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          The authors designed and synthesized 17 (2-substituted phenyl-1,3-dithiolan-4-yl) methanol (PDTM) derivatives to find a new chemical scaffold, showing excellent tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. Their tyrosinase-inhibitory activities were evaluated against mushroom tyrosinase at 50 μM, and five of the PDTM derivatives (PDTM3, PDTM7–PDTM9, and PDTM13) were found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase more than kojic acid or arbutin, the positive controls. Of seventeen PDTMs, PDTM3 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 13.94±1.76 μM), with a 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl moiety, exhibited greatest inhibitory effects (kojic acid half-maximal inhibitory concentration 18.86±2.14 μM). Interestingly, PDTM compounds with no hydroxyl group, PDTM7–PDTM9, also had stronger inhibitory activities than kojic acid. In silico studies of interactions between tyrosinase and the five PDTMs suggested their binding affinities were closely related to their tyrosinase-inhibitory activities. Cell-based experiments performed using B16F10 mouse-skin melanoma cells showed that PDTM3 effectively inhibited melanogenesis and cellular tyrosinase activity. A cell-viability study conducted using B16F10 cells indicated that the antimelanogenic effect of PDTM3 was not attributable to its cytotoxicity. Kinetic studies showed PDTM3 competitively inhibited tyrosinase, indicating binding to the tyrosinase-active site. We found that PDTM3 with a new chemical scaffold could be a promising candidate for skin-whitening agents, and that the 1,3-dithiolane ring could be used as a chemical scaffold for potent tyrosinase inhibition.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future.

           T. J. Kim,  H Uyama (2005)
          Tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. Various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional techniques to prevent tyrosinase action encourages us to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors. This article overviews the various inhibitors obtained from natural and synthetic sources with their industrial importance.
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            Development and validation of a modular, extensible docking program: DOCK 5.

            We report on the development and validation of a new version of DOCK. The algorithm has been rewritten in a modular format, which allows for easy implementation of new scoring functions, sampling methods and analysis tools. We validated the sampling algorithm with a test set of 114 protein-ligand complexes. Using an optimized parameter set, we are able to reproduce the crystal ligand pose to within 2 A of the crystal structure for 79% of the test cases using our rigid ligand docking algorithm with an average run time of 1 min per complex and for 72% of the test cases using our flexible ligand docking algorithm with an average run time of 5 min per complex. Finally, we perform an analysis of the docking failures in the test set and determine that the sampling algorithm is generally sufficient for the binding pose prediction problem for up to 7 rotatable bonds; i.e. 99% of the rigid ligand docking cases and 95% of the flexible ligand docking cases are sampled successfully. We point out that success rates could be improved through more advanced modeling of the receptor prior to docking and through improvement of the force field parameters, particularly for structures containing metal-based cofactors.
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              Regulation of melanogenesis--controversies and new concepts.

              Despite many efforts, regulation of skin and hair pigmentation is still not fully understood. This article focuses mainly on controversial aspects in pigment cell biology which have emerged over the last decade. The central role of tyrosinase as the key enzyme in initiation of melanogenesis has been closely associated with the 6BH4 dependent phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and tyrosine hydroxylase isoform I (THI) providing evidence for an old concept of the three enzyme theory in the initiation of the pigmentation process. In this context, it is noteworthy that intracellular L-phenylalanine uptake and turnover to L-tyrosine via PAH is vital for substrate supply of THI and tyrosinase. While PAH acts in the cytosol of melanocytes, THI and tyrosinase are sitting side by side in the melanosomal membrane. THI at low pH provides L-3,4-hydroxyphenylalanine L-DOPA which in turn is required for activation of met-tyrosinase. After an intramelanosomal pH change, possibly by the p-protein, has taken place, tyrosinase is subject to control by 6/7BH4 and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides alpha-MSH melanocyte stimulating hormone and beta-MSH in a receptor independent manner. cAMP is required for the activation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor to induce expression of tyrosinase, for transcription of THI and for activation of PAH. The redundancy of the cAMP signal is discussed. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism involving H2O2 in the regulation of tyrosinase via p53 through transcription of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha which in turn can also affect the POMC response.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                16 March 2017
                : 11
                : 827-836
                [1 ]College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan
                [2 ]College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Pusoon Chun, College of Pharmacy, Inje University, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyeongsangnam-do 621-749, South Korea, Tel +82 55 320 3886, Email pusoon@ 123456inje.ac.kr
                Hyung Ryong Moon, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 63-2 Busandaehak-ro, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735, South Korea, Tel +82 51 510 2815, Email mhr108@ 123456pusan.ac.kr
                © 2017 Kim et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                pdtm, tyrosinase inhibitor, 3-dithiolane, 1, melanogenesis


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