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      Generation of a functional liver tissue mimic using adipose stromal vascular fraction cell-derived vasculatures

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          Abstract

          One of the major challenges in cell implantation therapies is to promote integration of the microcirculation between the implanted cells and the host. We used adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells to vascularize a human liver cell (HepG2) implant. We hypothesized that the SVF cells would form a functional microcirculation via vascular assembly and inosculation with the host vasculature. Initially, we assessed the extent and character of neovasculatures formed by freshly isolated and cultured SVF cells and found that freshly isolated cells have a higher vascularization potential. Generation of a 3D implant containing fresh SVF and HepG2 cells formed a tissue in which HepG2 cells were entwined with a network of microvessels. Implanted HepG2 cells sequestered labeled LDL delivered by systemic intravascular injection only in SVF-vascularized implants demonstrating that SVF cell-derived vasculatures can effectively integrate with host vessels and interface with parenchymal cells to form a functional tissue mimic.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Molecular regulation of vessel maturation.

           R Jain (2003)
          The maturation of nascent vasculature, formed by vasculogenesis or angiogenesis, requires recruitment of mural cells, generation of an extracellular matrix and specialization of the vessel wall for structural support and regulation of vessel function. In addition, the vascular network must be organized so that all the parenchymal cells receive adequate nutrients. All of these processes are orchestrated by physical forces as well as by a constellation of ligands and receptors whose spatio-temporal patterns of expression and concentration are tightly regulated. Inappropriate levels of these physical forces or molecules produce an abnormal vasculature--a hallmark of various pathologies. Normalization of the abnormal vasculature can facilitate drug delivery to tumors and formation of a mature vasculature can help realize the promise of therapeutic angiogenesis and tissue engineering.
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            Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines secrete the major plasma proteins and hepatitis B surface antigen.

            Analysis of the cell culture fluid from two new human hepatoma-derived cell lines reveals that 17 of the major human plasma proteins are synthesized and secreted by these cells. One of these cell lines, Hep 3B, also produces the two major polypeptides of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. When Hep 3B in injected into athymic mice, metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas appear. These cell lines provide experimental models for investigation of plasma protein biosynthesis and the relation of the hepatitis B viru genome to tumorigenicity.
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              Pericyte recruitment during vasculogenic tube assembly stimulates endothelial basement membrane matrix formation.

              We show that endothelial cell (EC)-generated vascular guidance tunnels (ie, matrix spaces created during tube formation) serve as conduits for the recruitment and motility of pericytes along EC ablumenal surfaces to facilitate vessel maturation events, including vascular basement membrane matrix assembly and restriction of EC tube diameter. During quail development, pericyte recruitment along microvascular tubes directly correlates with vascular basement membrane matrix deposition. Pericyte recruitment to EC tubes leads to specific induction of fibronectin and nidogen-1 (ie, matrix-bridging proteins that link together basement membrane components) as well as perlecan and laminin isoforms. Coincident with these events, up-regulation of integrins, alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and alpha(1)beta(1), which bind fibronectin, nidogens, laminin isoforms, and collagen type IV, occurs in EC-pericyte cocultures, but not EC-only cultures. Integrin-blocking antibodies to these receptors, disruption of fibronectin matrix assembly, and small interfering RNA suppression of pericyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 (a known regulator of vascular tube stabilization) all lead to decreased EC basement membrane, resulting in increased vessel lumen diameter, a key indicator of dysfunctional EC-pericyte interactions. Thus, pericyte recruitment to EC-lined tubes during vasculogenesis is a stimulatory event controlling vascular basement membrane matrix assembly, a fundamental maturation step regulating the transition from vascular morphogenesis to stabilization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                05 July 2013
                2013
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cardiovascular Innovation Institute, University of Louisville , Louisville, KY, USA
                [2 ]These authors contributed equally to this work.
                [3 ]Current address: Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.
                [4 ]Current address: Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience (IBB), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
                Author notes
                Article
                srep02141
                10.1038/srep02141
                3701895
                23828203
                Copyright © 2013, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareALike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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