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      p40 (ΔNp63) is superior to p63 for the diagnosis of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

      Modern Pathology
      Adenocarcinoma, diagnosis, metabolism, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Diagnosis, Differential, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Lung Neoplasms, Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse, Membrane Proteins, Predictive Value of Tests, Transcription Factors, Tumor Markers, Biological, Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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          Abstract

          Immunohistochemistry has recently emerged as a powerful ancillary tool for differentiating lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma-a distinction with important therapeutic implications. Although the most frequently recommended squamous marker p63 is extremely sensitive, it suffers from low specificity due to its reactivity in a substantial proportion of lung adenocarcinomas and other tumor types, particularly lymphomas. p40 is a relatively unknown antibody that recognizes ΔNp63-a p63 isoform suggested to be highly specific for squamous/basal cells. Here we compared the standard p63 antibody (4A4) and p40 in a series of 470 tumors from the archives of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and The Johns Hopkins Hospital, which included lung squamous cell carcinomas (n=81), adenocarcinomas (n=237), and large cell lymphomas (n=152). The p63 was positive in 100% of squamous cell carcinomas, 31% of adenocarcinomas, and 54% of large cell lymphomas (sensitivity 100%, specificity 60%). In contrast, although p40 was also positive in 100% of squamous cell carcinomas, only 3% of adenocarcinomas, and none of large cell lymphomas had p40 labeling (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98%). The mean percentage of p63 versus p40-immunoreactive cells in squamous cell carcinomas was equivalent (97 vs 96%, respectively, P=0.73). Rare adenocarcinomas with p40 labeling had reactivity in no more than 5% of tumor cells, whereas the mean (range) of p63-positive cells in adenocarcinomas and lymphomas was 26% (1-90%) and 48% (2-100%), respectively. In summary, p40 is equivalent to p63 in sensitivity for squamous cell carcinoma, but it is markedly superior to p63 in specificity, which eliminates a potential pitfall of misinterpreting a p63-positive adenocarcinoma or unsuspected lymphoma as squamous cell carcinoma. These findings strongly support the routine use of p40 in place of p63 for the diagnosis of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

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          Most cited references41

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          Clinical and biological features associated with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in lung cancers.

          Mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancers are associated with increased sensitivity of these cancers to drugs that inhibit EGFR kinase activity. However, the role of such mutations in the pathogenesis of lung cancers is unclear. We sequenced exons 18-21 of the EGFR TK domain from genomic DNA isolated from 617 non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 524 normal lung tissue samples from the same patients and 36 neuroendocrine lung tumors collected from patients in Japan, Taiwan, the United States, and Australia and from 243 other epithelial cancers. Mutation status was compared with clinicopathologic features and with the presence of mutations in KRAS, a gene in the EGFR signaling pathway that is also frequently mutated in lung cancers. All statistical tests were two sided. We detected a total of 134 EGFR TK domain mutations in 130 (21%) of the 617 NSCLCs but not in any of the other carcinomas, nor in nonmalignant lung tissue from the same patients. In NSCLC patients, EGFR TK domain mutations were statistically significantly more frequent in never smokers than ever smokers (51% versus 10%), in adenocarcinomas versus cancer of other histologies (40% versus 3%), in patients of East Asian ethnicity versus other ethnicities (30% versus 8%), and in females versus males (42% versus 14%; all P < .001). EGFR TK domain mutation status was not associated with patient age at diagnosis, clinical stage, the presence of bronchioloalveolar histologic features, or overall survival. The EGFR TK domain mutations we detected were of three common types: in-frame deletions in exon 19, single missense mutations in exon 21, and in-frame duplications/insertions in exon 20. Rare missense mutations were also detected in exons 18, 20, and 21. KRAS gene mutations were present in 50 (8%) of the 617 NSCLCs but not in any tumors with an EGFR TK domain mutation. Mutations in either the EGFR TK domain or the KRAS gene can lead to lung cancer pathogenesis. EGFR TK domain mutations are the first molecular change known to occur specifically in never smokers.
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            p63, a p53 homolog at 3q27-29, encodes multiple products with transactivating, death-inducing, and dominant-negative activities.

            We describe the cloning of p63, a gene at chromosome 3q27-29 that bears strong homology to the tumor suppressor p53 and to the related gene, p73. p63 was detected in a variety of human and mouse tissues, including proliferating basal cells of epithelial layers in the epidermis, cervix, urothelium, and prostate. Unlike p53, the p63 gene encodes multiple isotypes with remarkably divergent abilities to transactivate p53 reporter genes and induce apoptosis. Importantly, the predominant p63 isotypes in many epithelial tissues lack an acidic N terminus corresponding to the transactivation domain of p53. We demonstrate that these truncated p63 variants can act as dominant-negative agents toward transactivation by p53 and p63, and we suggest the possibility of physiological interactions among members of the p53 family.
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              Randomized phase II trial comparing bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel with carboplatin and paclitaxel alone in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

              To investigate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. In a phase II trial, 99 patients were randomly assigned to bevacizumab 7.5 (n = 32) or 15 mg/kg (n = 35) plus carboplatin (area under the curve = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks or carboplatin and paclitaxel alone (n = 32). Primary efficacy end points were time to disease progression and best confirmed response rate. On disease progression, patients in the control arm had the option to receive single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Compared with the control arm, treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) resulted in a higher response rate (31.5% v 18.8%), longer median time to progression (7.4 v 4.2 months) and a modest increase in survival (17.7 v 14.9 months). Of the 19 control patients that crossed over to single-agent bevacizumab, five experienced stable disease, and 1-year survival was 47%. Bleeding was the most prominent adverse event and was manifested in two distinct clinical patterns; minor mucocutaneous hemorrhage and major hemoptysis. Major hemoptysis was associated with squamous cell histology, tumor necrosis and cavitation, and disease location close to major blood vessels. Bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel improved overall response and time to progression in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with nonsquamous cell histology appear to be a subpopulation with improved outcome and acceptable safety risks.
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