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      The Combined Use of Melatonin and an Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 Inhibitor Enhances Vaccine-Induced Protective Cellular Immunity to HPV16-Associated Tumors

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          Immunotherapy has become an important ally in the fight against distinct types of cancer. However, the metabolic plasticity of the tumor environment frequently influences the efficacy of therapeutic procedures, including those based on immunological tools. In this scenario, immunometabolic adjuvants arise as an alternative toward the development of more efficient cancer therapies. Here we demonstrated that the combination of melatonin, a neuroimmunomodulator molecule, and an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor (1-methyl-DL-tryptophan, DL-1MT) improves the efficacy of an immunotherapy (gDE7) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tumors. Melatonin or IDO inhibitors (D-1MT and DL-1MT) directly reduced proliferation, migration, adhesion and viability of a tumor cell line (TC-1), capable to express the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but could not confer in vivo antitumor protection effects. Nonetheless, combination of gDE7 with melatonin or D-1MT or DL-1MT enhanced the antitumor protective immunity of gDE7-based vaccine in mice. Notably, expression of IDO1 in stromal cells and/or immune cells, but not in tumor cells, inhibited the antitumor effects of the gDE7, as demonstrated in IDO1-deficient mice. Finally, co-administration of gDE7, melatonin and DL-1MT further improved the protective antitumor effects and the numbers of circulating E7-specific CD8 + T cells in mice previously transplanted with TC-1 cells. The unprecedented combination of melatonin and IDO inhibitors, as immunometabolic adjuvants, thus, represents a new and promising alternative for improving the efficacy of immunotherapeutic treatments of HPV-associated tumors.

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          The future of immune checkpoint therapy.

          Immune checkpoint therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses, has led to important clinical advances and provided a new weapon against cancer. This therapy has elicited durable clinical responses and, in a fraction of patients, long-term remissions where patients exhibit no clinical signs of cancer for many years. The way forward for this class of novel agents lies in our ability to understand human immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. This will provide valuable information regarding the dynamic nature of the immune response and regulation of additional pathways that will need to be targeted through combination therapies to provide survival benefit for greater numbers of patients.
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            Effective treatment of metastatic cancers usually requires the use of toxic chemotherapy. In most cases, multiple drugs are used, as resistance to single agents occurs almost universally. For this reason, elucidation of mechanisms that confer simultaneous resistance to different drugs with different targets and chemical structures - multidrug resistance - has been a major goal of cancer biologists during the past 35 years. Here, we review the most common of these mechanisms, one that relies on drug efflux from cancer cells mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We describe various approaches to combating multidrug-resistant cancer, including the development of drugs that engage, evade or exploit efflux by ABC transporters.
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              Human papillomavirus types in 115,789 HPV-positive women: a meta-analysis from cervical infection to cancer.

              Genotyping may improve risk stratification of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women in cervical screening programs; however, prospective data comparing the natural history and carcinogenic potential of individual HR types remain limited. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional HR HPV-type distribution in 115,789 HPV-positive women was performed, including 33,154 normal cytology, 6,810 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 13,480 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 6,616 high-grade SIL (HSIL) diagnosed cytologically, 8,106 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 4,068 CIN2 and 10,753 CIN3 diagnosed histologically and 36,374 invasive cervical cancers (ICCs) from 423 PCR-based studies worldwide. No strong differences in HPV-type distribution were apparent between normal cytology, ASCUS, LSIL or CIN1. However, HPV16 positivity increased steeply from normal/ASCUS/LSIL/CIN1 (20-28%), through CIN2/HSIL (40/47%) to CIN3/ICC (58/63%). HPV16, 18 and 45 accounted for a greater or equal proportion of HPV infections in ICC compared to normal cytology (ICC:normal ratios = 3.07, 1.87 and 1.10, respectively) and to CIN3 (ICC:CIN3 ratios = 1.08, 2.11 and 1.47, respectively). Other HR types accounted for important proportions of HPV-positive CIN2 and CIN3, but their contribution dropped in ICC, with ICC:normal ratios ranging from 0.94 for HPV33 down to 0.16 for HPV51. ICC:normal ratios were particularly high for HPV45 in Africa (1.85) and South/Central America (1.79) and for HPV58 in Eastern Asia (1.36). ASCUS and LSIL appear proxies of HPV infection rather than cancer precursors, and even CIN3 is not entirely representative of the types causing ICC. HPV16 in particular, but also HPV18 and 45, warrant special attention in HPV-based screening programs. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

                Author and article information

                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                22 August 2018
                : 9
                1Vaccine Development Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of São Paulo , São Paulo, Brazil
                2Department of Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo , São Paulo, Brazil
                3Department of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of São Paulo , São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes

                Edited by: Patrik Andersson, Harvard Medical School, United States

                Reviewed by: Graham Robert Leggatt, The University of Queensland, Australia; Luis De La Cruz-Merino, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Spain

                *Correspondence: Ana C. R. Moreno carol@

                This article was submitted to Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Copyright © 2018 Moreno, Porchia, Pagni, Souza, Pegoraro, Rodrigues, Barros, Aps, de Araújo, Calich and Ferreira.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 14, Words: 8990
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo 10.13039/501100001807
                Original Research


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