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      Insights Into Oxidized Lipid Modification in Barley Roots as an Adaptation Mechanism to Salinity Stress

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          Abstract

          Lipidomics is an emerging technology, which aims at the global characterization and quantification of lipids within biological matrices including biofluids, cells, whole organs and tissues. The changes in individual lipid molecular species in stress treated plant species and different cultivars can indicate the functions of genes affecting lipid metabolism or lipid signaling. Mass spectrometry–based lipid profiling has been used to track the changes of lipid levels and related metabolites in response to salinity stress. We have developed a comprehensive lipidomics platform for the identification and direct qualification and/or quantification of individual lipid species, including oxidized lipids, which enables a more systematic investigation of peroxidation of individual lipid species in barley roots under salinity stress. This new lipidomics approach has improved with an advantage of analyzing the composition of acyl chains at the molecular level, which facilitates to profile precisely the 18:3-containing diacyl-glycerophosphates and allowed individual comparison of lipids across varieties. Our findings revealed a general decrease in most of the galactolipids in plastid membranes, and an increase of glycerophospholipids and acylated steryl glycosides, which indicate that plastidial and extraplastidial membranes in barley roots ubiquitously tend to form a hexagonal II (HII) phase under salinity stress. In addition, salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars showed contrasting changes in the levels of oxidized membrane lipids. These results support the hypothesis that salt-induced oxidative damage to membrane lipids can be used as an indication of salt stress tolerance in barley.

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          Most cited references74

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          The water culture method of growing plants without soil

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            Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review.

            Plants exposed to salt stress undergo changes in their environment. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Essential pathways include those that lead to synthesis of osmotically active metabolites, specific proteins, and certain free radical scavenging enzymes that control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals or chaperones. The ability of plants to detoxify radicals under conditions of salt stress is probably the most critical requirement. Many salt-tolerant species accumulate methylated metabolites, which play crucial dual roles as osmoprotectants and as radical scavengers. Their synthesis is correlated with stress-induced enhancement of photorespiration. In this paper, plant responses to salinity stress are reviewed with emphasis on physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. This review may help in interdisciplinary studies to assess the ecological significance of salt stress.
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              Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants.

              M. Tester (2003)
              Tolerance to high soil [Na(+)] involves processes in many different parts of the plant, and is manifested in a wide range of specializations at disparate levels of organization, such as gross morphology, membrane transport, biochemistry and gene transcription. Multiple adaptations to high [Na(+)] operate concurrently within a particular plant, and mechanisms of tolerance show large taxonomic variation. These mechanisms can occur in all cells within the plant, or can occur in specific cell types, reflecting adaptations at two major levels of organization: those that confer tolerance to individual cells, and those that contribute to tolerance not of cells per se, but of the whole plant. Salt-tolerant cells can contribute to salt tolerance of plants; but we suggest that equally important in a wide range of conditions are processes involving the management of Na(+) movements within the plant. These require specific cell types in specific locations within the plant catalysing transport in a coordinated manner. For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell-specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                04 February 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne , Parkville, VIC, Australia
                [2] 2 St. Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, University of Melbourne , Fitzroy, VIC, Australia
                [3] 3 Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne , Parkville, VIC, Australia
                [4] 4 School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University , Perth, WA, Australia
                [5] 5 Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, Department of Plant Biochemistry, University of Goettingen , Goettingen, Germany
                [6] 6 Goettingen Center for Molecular Biosciences, Department of Plant Biochemistry, University of Goettingen , Goettingen, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ikuo Nishida, Saitama University, Japan

                Reviewed by: Thierry Heitz, Université de Strasbourg, France; Luisa Hernandez, University of Seville, Spain

                *Correspondence: Thusitha W. T. Rupasinghe, tru@ 123456unimelb.edu.au

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2020.00001
                7011103
                32117356
                b4f233f6-dc46-41ae-a133-5002eb79c335
                Copyright © 2020 Yu, Boughton, Hill, Feussner, Roessner and Rupasinghe

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 09 October 2019
                : 01 January 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 84, Pages: 16, Words: 9132
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                oxidized lipids,salt stress,barley roots,mass spectrometry,lipid modification,hordeum vulgare,oxylipins

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