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      Perspectives of Child Life Specialists After Many Years of Working With a Humanoid Robot in a Pediatric Hospital: Narrative Design


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          Child life specialists (CLSs) play an important role in supporting patients and their families during their visits to a children’s hospital. Although CLSs are equipped with considerable expertise to support families during some of the most difficult moments of their lives, we introduced an additional resource to them in the form of a humanoid robot named MEDi.


          The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of CLSs using a robot to support children.


          We interviewed 7 CLSs who had worked with this robot for several years. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding.


          The first main theme that emerged was the process of navigating from fear to friendship in learning to use a humanoid robot for therapeutic support. The second major theme was MEDi as a source of connection and support to children. CLSs’ perceptions of MEDi as an adaptable resource and working with the limits of MEDi constituted the last 2 themes.


          These descriptions show how CLSs can incorporate a robot into their practice.

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          Most cited references29

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          Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

          Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
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            The Clinical Use of Robots for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Critical Review.

            We examined peer-reviewed studies in order to understand the current status of empirically-based evidence on the clinical applications of robots in the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Studies are organized into four broad categories: (a) the response of individuals with ASD to robots or robot-like behavior in comparison to human behavior, (b) the use of robots to elicit behaviors, (c) the use of robots to model, teach, and/or practice a skill, and (d) the use of robots to provide feedback on performance. A critical review of the literature revealed that most of the findings are exploratory and have methodological limitations that make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the clinical utility of robots. Finally, we outline the research needed to determine the incremental validity of this technique.
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              Narrative Research: A Comparison of Two Restorying Data Analysis Approaches


                Author and article information

                J Med Internet Res
                J Med Internet Res
                Journal of Medical Internet Research
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                November 2020
                19 November 2020
                : 22
                : 11
                : e23496
                [1 ] Department of Community Health Sciences University of Calgary Calgary, AB Canada
                [2 ] Alberta Children's Hospital Calgary, AB Canada
                [3 ] University of Calgary Calgary, AB Canada
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Tanya Beran tnaberan@ 123456ucalgary.ca
                ©Tanya Beran, Jacqueline Reynolds Pearson, Bonnie Lashewicz, Sandy Baggott. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 19.11.2020.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 13 August 2020
                : 11 September 2020
                : 1 October 2020
                : 1 October 2020
                Original Paper
                Original Paper

                child life,support,pediatric,distraction,robotics,human-robot interaction
                child life, support, pediatric, distraction, robotics, human-robot interaction


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