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      The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

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          Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Error-correcting barcoded primers for pyrosequencing hundreds of samples in multiplex.

          We constructed error-correcting DNA barcodes that allow one run of a massively parallel pyrosequencer to process up to 1,544 samples simultaneously. Using these barcodes we processed bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences representing microbial communities in 286 environmental samples, corrected 92% of sample assignment errors, and thus characterized nearly as many 16S rRNA genes as have been sequenced to date by Sanger sequencing.
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            Molecular analysis of human forearm superficial skin bacterial biota.

            The microbial ecology of human skin is complex, but little is known about its species composition. We examined the diversity of the skin biota from the superficial volar left and right forearms in six healthy subjects using broad-range small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) PCR-based sequencing of randomly selected clones. For the initial 1,221 clones analyzed, 182 species-level operational taxonomic units (SLOTUs) belonging to eight phyla were identified, estimated as 74.0% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), approximately 64.8-77.9%] of the SLOTUs in this ecosystem; 48.0 +/- 12.2 SLOTUs were found in each subject. Three phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) accounted for 94.6% of the clones. Most (85.3%) of the bacterial sequences corresponded to known and cultivated species, but 98 (8.0%) clones, comprising 30 phylotypes, had <97% similarity to prior database sequences. Only 6 (6.6%) of the 91 genera and 4 (2.2%) of the 182 SLOTUs, respectively, were found in all six subjects. Analysis of 817 clones obtained 8-10 months later from four subjects showed additional phyla (numbering 2), genera (numbering 28), and SLOTUs (numbering 65). Only four (3.4%) of the 119 genera (Propionibacteria, Corynebacteria, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were observed in each subject tested twice, but these genera represented 54.4% of all clones. These results show that the bacterial biota in normal superficial skin is highly diverse, with few well conserved and well represented genera, but otherwise low-level interpersonal consensus.
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              The skin microbiome


                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                28 October 2015
                : 10
                : 10
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology and Microbial Engineering, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Scientific Affairs, Johnson & Johnson China Ltd., Shanghai, China
                [3 ]Graduate Program in Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
                [4 ]Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
                [5 ]Institute for Genomic and Systems Biology, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States of America
                [6 ]Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of America
                [7 ]College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
                National Cancer Institute, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: Financial support from Johnson & Johnson (China) does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. Yuan Tan and Carlos Galzote are employees of Johnson & Johnson (China).

                Conceived and designed the experiments: ZXQ YT CG. Performed the experiments: DNZ SY LC YT. Analyzed the data: SY ZXQ DNZ YT CG JG SL. Wrote the paper: SY ZXQ JG CC.


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 16
                This work was supported by a grant from Johnson & Johnson (China). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The funder provided support in the form of salaries for investigator/authors [YT, CG], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section. Editorial services were provided by Evidence Scientific Solutions (Philadelphia, PA) and were funded by Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. (Skillman, NJ USA).
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                The sequence data generated for this study were deposited in the NCBI GenBank Short Read Archive (SRA) under accession number SRP051059.



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