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      Impact of prostaglandin glaucoma drops on platelet-activating factor action: an in vitro study

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          Abstract

          Aim

          The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different prostaglandin analogs on platelet-activating factor (PAF) levels.

          Methods

          Three prostaglandin analogs were selected: bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL, latanoprost 50 μg/mL, and tafluprost 15 μg/mL. Each drug sample was tested for its ability to cause platelet aggregation, which was measured as PAF-induced aggregation, before and after the addition of various concentrations of the examined sample, creating a linear curve of percentage inhibition (ranging from 0% to 100%) versus different concentrations of the sample. The concentration of the sample that inhibited 50% PAF-induced aggregation was calculated based on this curve, and this value was defined as IC50. In addition, the effect of eye drops on PAF metabolism was examined, through an in vitro analysis on PAF basic metabolic enzymes (PAF-cholinephosphotransferase, PAF-acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, and PAF-acetylhydrolase).

          Results

          The IC50 values for Lumigan UD ® (bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL), Monoprost ® (latanoprost 50 μg/mL), and Saflutan (tafluprost 15 μg/mL) were 8.7, 0.28, and 1.4 μg/mL, respectively.

          Discussion

          All three prostaglandin analogs suspended PAF, but bimatoprost induced the most potent inhibition, compared to tafluprost and to the weak effect of latanoprost.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

          This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma.
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            Terminology and guidelines for glaucoma

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              The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.

              Glaucoma is an ocular disorder characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons. There are various hypotheses concerning the cause of RGC death. Previously, glaucoma was defined by high intraocular pressure (IOP); during the past decade, however, glaucoma specialists have acknowledged that elevated IOP is the most important risk factor for glaucoma, but does not define the disease. Other factors such as genetics, blood flow, and excitotoxicity are suggested as potential causal factors for progressive RGC death observed in glaucoma. We review recent studies elucidating a possible role of low-grade inflammation as a causal factor in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                07 December 2016
                : 10
                : 3977-3981
                Affiliations
                [1 ]1st Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
                [3 ]Laboratory of Biochemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marilita M Moschos, 1st Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 6, Ikaria Street, Ekali, Athens 14578, Greece, Tel +30 69 4488 7319, Fax +30 21 0412 2319, Email moschosmarilita@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Article
                dddt-10-3977
                10.2147/DDDT.S117806
                5153256
                © 2016 Moschos et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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