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      Os efeitos do estresse na função do eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal em indivíduos com esquizofrenia Translated title: The effects of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in subjects with schizophrenia

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          Abstract

          Nas últimas décadas, têm surgido evidências sugerindo que a patogênese de desordens psiquiátricas, tais como a esquizofrenia, pode envolver perturbações no eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal (HPA). Variações na manifestação desses efeitos poderiam estar relacionadas a diferenças em sintomas clínicos entre os indivíduos afetados, assim como a diferenças na resposta ao tratamento. Tais efeitos podem também ser originados de complexas interações entre genes e fatores ambientais. Aqui, revisamos os efeitos do estresse maternal em anormalidades na regulação do eixo HPA e desenvolvimento de desordens psiquiátricas, incluindo a esquizofrenia. Estudos nessa área podem gerar o aumento do nosso entendimento da natureza multidimensional da esquizofrenia. Posterior pesquisa nesse campo poderia, em última instância, levar ao desenvolvimento de melhores diagnósticos e novas abordagens terapêuticas para essa debilitante condição psiquiátrica.

          Translated abstract

          Over the last few decades, evidence has been emerging that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to the differences in clinical symptoms between affected individuals as well as to differences in treatment response. Such effects can also arise from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Here, we review the effects of maternal stress on abnormalities in HPA axis regulation and the development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Studies in this area may prove critical for increasing our understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of schizophrenia. Further research in this area could ultimately lead to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutic approaches for treating this debilitating psychiatric condition.

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          Most cited references 115

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          Maternal nutrition, fetal nutrition, and disease in later life.

          Recent findings suggest that many human fetuses have to adapt to a limited supply of nutrients and in doing so they permanently change their physiology and metabolism. These "programmed" changes may be the origins of a number of diseases in later life, including coronary heart disease and the related disorders stroke, diabetes, and hypertension.
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            Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.

            This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Schizophrenia after prenatal famine. Further evidence.

              Suggestive findings of an earlier study that prenatal nutritional deficiency was a determinant of schizophrenia prompted us to undertake a second test of the hypothesis using more precise data on both exposure and outcome. Among persons born in the cities of western Netherlands during 1944 through 1946, we compared the risk for schizophrenia in those exposed and unexposed during early gestation to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944/1945. The frequency of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia at age 24 to 48 years in the exposed and unexposed birth cohorts was ascertained from a national psychiatric registry. The most exposed birth cohort, conceived at the height of the famine, showed a twofold and statistically significant increase in the risk for schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 3.4; P < .01) in both men (RR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.7; P = .05) and women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.0 to 4.7; P = .04). Among all birth cohorts of 1944 through 1946, the risk for schizophrenia clearly peaked in this exposed cohort. Prenatal nutritional deficiency may play a role in the origin of some cases of schizophrenia.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rpc
                Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)
                Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (São Paulo)
                Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo )
                1806-938X
                2013
                : 40
                : 1
                : 20-27
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Bristol University United Kingdom
                [2 ] University of Cambridge United Kingdom
                [3 ] Ludwig Maximilians Universität München Germany
                [4 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [5 ] Erasmus University Medical Center Netherlands
                Article
                S0101-60832013000100005
                10.1590/s0101-60832012005000002
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL
                PSYCHIATRY

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