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Metal-nanostructures – a modern and powerful platform to create transparent electrodes for thin-film photovoltaics

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      Abstract

      The recent progress of semi-transparent electrodes based on thin metal layers or metal nanowires and their application in solar cells are reviewed.

      Abstract

      Thin-film solar technology is the subject of considerable current research. The classical material platform of amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been complemented by organic solar cells and more recently by solar cells based on quantum dots or organo-metal-halide perovskites. The majority of effort is focused on the synthesis, characterization and optimization of the photo-active components as well as on the invention of novel device architectures. Low-cost, low-weight, flexibility and the opportunity to create semi-transparent devices are among the most frequently claimed selling points of thin-film solar cells. It is clear that the full potential of this technology and the ability to fulfill its promises are intimately linked with tailored concepts for transparent electrodes beyond established avenues. Transparent electrodes, that can be realized at a large area, at low costs, at low temperature, which are flexible (or even elastic), and which afford a conductivity and transmittance even better than those of indium-tin-oxide, are still vigorously pursued. Even though metal based semi-transparent electrodes have a notable history, there is an ever increasing effort to unlock the full potential of metal nano-structures, especially ultra-thin films (2D) or metal-nanowires (1D) as semitransparent electrodes for thin-film solar cells. This article will review the most recent advances in semitransparent electrodes based on metal-nanowires or metal thin-films. Aside from providing general considerations and a review of the state of the art of electrode properties like sheet resistance and optical transmittance, we aim to highlight the current efforts to introduce these electrodes into solar cells. We will demonstrate that by the use of metal based semitransparent electrodes not only a replacement for established transparent conductors can be achieved but also novel functionalities can be envisaged.

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      SOLAR CELLS. High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange.

      The band gap of formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskites allows broader absorption of the solar spectrum relative to conventional methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). Because the optoelectronic properties of perovskite films are closely related to film quality, deposition of dense and uniform films is crucial for fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We report an approach for depositing high-quality FAPbI3 films, involving FAPbI3 crystallization by the direct intramolecular exchange of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) molecules intercalated in PbI2 with formamidinium iodide. This process produces FAPbI3 films with (111)-preferred crystallographic orientation, large-grained dense microstructures, and flat surfaces without residual PbI2. Using films prepared by this technique, we fabricated FAPbI3-based PSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency greater than 20%.
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        Anomalous Optical Absorption Limit in InSb

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          The mean free path of electrons in metals

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Institute of Electronic Devices
            [2 ]University of Wuppertal
            [3 ]Wuppertal
            [4 ]Germany
            Journal
            JMCAET
            Journal of Materials Chemistry A
            J. Mater. Chem. A
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            2050-7488
            2050-7496
            2016
            2016
            : 4
            : 38
            : 14481-14508
            10.1039/C6TA05286J
            © 2016
            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C6TA05286J

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