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      The polytrauma clinical triad in patients with chronic pain after motor vehicle collision

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          Abstract

          Background

          The polytrauma clinical triad (PCT) is a complex disorder composed of three comorbid diagnoses of chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). PCT has been documented in veterans returning from deployment, but this is the first report on PCT prevalence in nonmilitary personnel after a motor vehicle collision (MVC).

          Methods

          Data were drawn from routine intake assessments completed by 71 patients referred to a community-based clinic for chronic pain management. All patients completed the post-traumatic stress disorder checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (PCL-5), and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) during a standardized intake assessment. An additional modified RPQ score was derived to address previously reported symptom overlap between PCS and chronic pain.

          Results

          Standard and modified RPQ scores yielded PCS prevalence rates of 100% and 54.9% in our sample, respectively. Results suggest that a modified RPQ score, limited to visual and vestibular symptoms, may be more useful PCS screening criteria in patients with chronic pain. PTSD screening criteria on the PCL-5 were met by 85.9% of the patients. More than half of the patients referred for chronic pain after MVC met criteria for PCT (52.1%). Patients who met PCT criteria reported worse headache, overall pain, and sleep quality outcomes.

          Conclusion

          Among patients in our sample with chronic pain after MVC, more than half met criteria for PCT. A modified approach to RPQ scoring limited to visual and vestibular symptoms may be required to screen for PCS in these patients.

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          Most cited references 47

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          The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: a measure of symptoms commonly experienced after head injury and its reliability.

          After head injuries, particularly mild or moderate ones, a range of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) are often reported by patients. Such symptoms may significantly affect patients' psychosocial functioning. To date, no measure of the severity of PCS has been developed. This study presents the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) as such a measure, derived from published material, and investigates its reliability. The RPQ's reliability was investigated under two experimental conditions. Study 1 examined its test-retest reliability when used as a self-report questionnaire at 7-10 days after injury. Forty-one head-injured patients completed an RPQ at 7-10 days following their head injury and again approximately 24 h later. Study 2 examined the questionnaire's inter-rater reliability when used as a measure administered by two separate investigators. Forty-six head-injured patients had an RPQ administered by an investigator at 6 months after injury. A second investigator readministered the questionnaire approximately 7 days later. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated for ratings on the total symptom scores, and for individual items. High reliability was found for the total PCS scores under both experimental conditions (Rs = + 0.91 in study 1 and Rs = + 0.87 in study 2). Good reliability was also found for individual PCS items generally, although with some variation between different symptoms. The results are discussed in relation to the major difficulties involved when looking for appropriate experimental criteria against which measures of PCS can be validated.
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            Recall bias in epidemiologic studies.

            The factors which contribute to bias due to differential recall between cases and controls in retrospective studies have been little studied. A review of the literature on recall accuracy suggests that the extent of inaccurate recall is related to characteristics of the exposure of interest and of the respondents, though a distinction must be drawn between recall which is biased and that which is simply inaccurate. Interviewing technique and the study protocol, including the design of questionnaires and the motivation of respondents, play a central role and are under the control of the investigator. The results of validation studies carried out to date suggest that the likelihood of recall bias may be greater when recall is poor in general.
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              Symptomatology and functional outcome in mild traumatic brain injury: results from the prospective TRACK-TBI study.

               ,  A Hricik,  Hester F Lingsma (2014)
              Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), or concussion, is a major public health concern. There is controversy in the literature regarding the true incidence of postconcussion syndrome (PCS), with the constellation of physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep symptoms after mTBI. In the current study, we report on the incidence and evolution of PCS symptoms and patient outcomes after mTBI at 3, 6, and 12 months in a large, prospective cohort of mTBI patients. Participants were identified as part of the prospective, multi-center Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Study. The study population was mTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15) presenting to the emergency department, including patients with a negative head computed tomography discharged to home without admission to hospital; 375 mTBI subjects were included in the analysis. At both 6 and 12 months after mTBI, 82% (n=250 of 305 and n=163 of 199, respectively) of patients reported at least one PCS symptom. Further, 44.5 and 40.3% of patients had significantly reduced Satisfaction With Life scores at 6 and 12 months, respectively. At 3 months after injury, 33% of the mTBI subjects were functionally impaired (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score ≤6); 22.4% of the mTBI subjects available for follow-up were still below full functional status at 1 year after injury. The term "mild" continues to be a misnomer for this patient population and underscores the critical need for evolving classification strategies for TBI for targeted therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                20 September 2018
                : 11
                : 1927-1936
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Seekers Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada, cayden@ 123456seekerscentre.com
                [2 ]Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cayden Peixoto, The Seekers Centre, 942 Merivale Road, Ottawa, ON K1Z 5Z9, Canada, Tel +613 727 7246, Fax +613 727 7247, Email cayden@ 123456seekerscentre.com
                Article
                jpr-11-1927
                10.2147/JPR.S165077
                6160266
                © 2018 Peixoto et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                ptsd, mvc, concussion, chronic pain, mtbi

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