Graphene is the two-dimensional (2d) building block for carbon allotropes of every other dimensionality. It can be stacked into 3d graphite, rolled into 1d nanotubes, or wrapped into 0d fullerenes. Its recent discovery in free state has finally provided the possibility to study experimentally its electronic and phonon properties. Here we show that graphene's electronic structure is uniquely captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with increasing number of layers. Raman fingerprints for single-, bi- and few-layer graphene reflect changes in the electronic structure and electron-phonon interactions and allow unambiguous, high-throughput, non-destructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area.