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      Adult onset xanthogranuloma of the eyelid

      case-report

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To report a rare case of an eyelid lesion in an adult, with histological features of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG).

          Observations

          Juvenile xanthogranuloma primarily affects the skin of infants and young children. It infrequently can involve the structures of the eye and orbit and rarely occurs in individuals beyond the second decade of life. We present a case of adult onset xanthogranuloma (AXG) involving the eyelid of a 29-year-old female. This lesion required management with multiple treatment modalities.

          Conclusions

          This is a rare example of an eyelid xanthogranuloma in an adult. As such, JXG-like lesions should be included as a differential diagnosis for lesions of the eye and orbit in adults. Surgical management may be required if there is no response to intralesional steroids.

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          Most cited references29

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          Revised classification of histiocytoses and neoplasms of the macrophage-dendritic cell lineages.

          The histiocytoses are rare disorders characterized by the accumulation of macrophage, dendritic cell, or monocyte-derived cells in various tissues and organs of children and adults. More than 100 different subtypes have been described, with a wide range of clinical manifestations, presentations, and histologies. Since the first classification in 1987, a number of new findings regarding the cellular origins, molecular pathology, and clinical features of histiocytic disorders have been identified. We propose herein a revision of the classification of histiocytoses based on histology, phenotype, molecular alterations, and clinical and imaging characteristics. This revised classification system consists of 5 groups of diseases: (1) Langerhans-related, (2) cutaneous and mucocutaneous, and (3) malignant histiocytoses as well as (4) Rosai-Dorfman disease and (5) hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and macrophage activation syndrome. Herein, we provide guidelines and recommendations for diagnoses of these disorders.
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            Is Open Access

            Tracking and quantification of dendritic cell migration and antigen trafficking between the skin and lymph nodes

            Skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis due to their role in antigen trafficking from the skin to the draining lymph nodes (dLNs). To quantify the spatiotemporal regulation of skin-derived DCs in vivo, we generated knock-in mice expressing the photoconvertible fluorescent protein KikGR. By exposing the skin or dLN of these mice to violet light, we were able to label and track the migration and turnover of endogenous skin-derived DCs. Langerhans cells and CD103+DCs, including Langerin+CD103+dermal DCs (DDCs), remained in the dLN for 4–4.5 days after migration from the skin, while CD103−DDCs persisted for only two days. Application of a skin irritant (chemical stress) induced a transient >10-fold increase in CD103−DDC migration from the skin to the dLN. Tape stripping (mechanical injury) induced a long-lasting four-fold increase in CD103−DDC migration to the dLN and accelerated the trafficking of exogenous protein antigens by these cells. Both stresses increased the turnover of CD103−DDCs within the dLN, causing these cells to die within one day of arrival. Therefore, CD103−DDCs act as sentinels against skin invasion that respond with increased cellular migration and antigen trafficking from the skin to the dLNs.
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              "Dermal dendritic cells" comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages.

              A key cell type of the resident skin immune system is the dendritic cell (DC), which in normal skin is located in two distinct microanatomical compartments: Langerhans cells (LCs), mainly in the epidermis, and dermal DCs (DDCs), in the dermis. Here, the lineage of DDCs was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and immunohistology. We provide evidence that "DDC" comprise at least two major phenotypic populations of dendritic-appearing cells, immature DC expressing CD1, CD11c and CD208; and macrophages expressing CD209, CD206, CD163, and CD68. These data suggest that dermal dendritic-appearing macrophages comprise a novel part of the innate immune response in the resident skin immune system.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep
                Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep
                American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
                Elsevier
                2451-9936
                09 December 2022
                March 2023
                09 December 2022
                : 29
                : 101775
                Affiliations
                [a ]The Lions Outback Vision, Lions Eye Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
                [b ]Department of Anatomical Pathology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
                [c ]College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
                [d ]Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Lions Outback Vision, 2 Verdun Street, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009, Australia. james.wiffen@ 123456westnet.com.au
                [1]

                Both authors contributed to article equally.

                Article
                S2451-9936(22)00521-7 101775
                10.1016/j.ajoc.2022.101775
                9762145
                36544751
                b517eaab-dad1-4856-8878-9827e6df1a63
                © 2022 Published by Elsevier Inc.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 23 August 2022
                : 19 November 2022
                : 5 December 2022
                Categories
                Case Report

                eyelid,juvenile xanthogranuloma,adult onset,management
                eyelid, juvenile xanthogranuloma, adult onset, management

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