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      Cytonemes

      ,

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 30

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          The bicoid protein determines position in the Drosophila embryo in a concentration-dependent manner.

          The bicoid (bcd) protein in a Drosophila embryo is derived from an anteriorly localized mRNA and comes to be distributed in an exponential concentration gradient along the anteroposterior axis. To determine whether the levels of bcd protein are directly related to certain cell fates, we manipulated the density and distribution of bcd mRNA by genetic means, measured the resultant alterations in height and shape of the bcd protein gradient, and correlated the gradient with the fate map of the respective embryos. Increases or decreases in bcd protein levels in a given region of the embryo cause a corresponding posterior or anterior shift of anterior anlagen in the embryo. The bcd protein thus has the properties of a morphogen that autonomously determines positions in the anterior half of the embryo.
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            Dual roles for patched in sequestering and transducing Hedgehog.

            Secreted proteins of the Hedgehog (Hh) family have diverse organizing roles in animal development. Recently, a serpentine protein Smoothened (Smo) has been proposed as a Hh receptor. Here, we present evidence that implicates another multiple-pass transmembrane protein, Patched (Ptc), in Hh reception and suggests a novel signal transduction mechanism in which Hh binds to Ptc, or a Ptc-Smo complex, and thereby induces Smo activity. Our results also show that Ptc limits the range of Hh action; we provide evidence that high levels of Ptc induced by Hh serve to sequester any free Hh and therefore create a barrier to its further movement.
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              Direct and long-range action of a DPP morphogen gradient.

              During development of the Drosophila wing, the decapentaplegic (dpp) gene is expressed in a stripe of cells along the anteroposterior compartment boundary and gives rise to a secreted protein that exerts a long-range organizing influence on both compartments. Using clones of cells that express DPP, or in which DPP receptor activity has been constitutively activated or abolished, we show that DPP acts directly and at long range on responding cells, rather than by proxy through the short-range induction of other signaling molecules. Further, we show that two genes, optomotor-blind and spalt are transcriptionally activated at different distances from DPP-secreting cells and provide evidence that these genes respond to different threshold concentrations of DPP protein. We propose that DPP acts as a gradient morphogen during wing development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                May 1999
                May 1999
                : 97
                : 5
                : 599-607
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80771-0
                © 1999

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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