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      Immunobiology of mesenchymal stem cells

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          Abstract

          Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from almost all tissues and effectively expanded in vitro. Although their true in situ properties and biological functions remain to be elucidated, these in vitro expanded cells have been shown to possess potential to differentiate into specific cell lineages. It is speculated that MSCs in situ have important roles in tissue cellular homeostasis by replacing dead or dysfunctional cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that in vitro expanded MSCs of various origins have great capacity to modulate immune responses and change the progression of different inflammatory diseases. As tissue injuries are often accompanied by inflammation, inflammatory factors may provide cues to mobilize MSCs to tissue sites with damage. Before carrying out tissue repair functions, MSCs first prepare the microenvironment by modulating inflammatory processes and releasing various growth factors in response to the inflammation status. In this review, we focus on the crosstalk between MSCs and immune responses and their potential clinical applications, especially in inflammatory diseases.

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          Most cited references 147

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          Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells.

          Human mesenchymal stem cells are thought to be multipotent cells, which are present in adult marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Cells that have the characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors. These cells displayed a stable phenotype and remained as a monolayer in vitro. These adult stem cells could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages. Individual stem cells were identified that, when expanded to colonies, retained their multilineage potential.
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            Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses.

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in several adult tissues. Transplanted allogeneic MSCs can be detected in recipients at extended time points, indicating a lack of immune recognition and clearance. As well, a role for bone marrow-derived MSCs in reducing the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during allogeneic transplantation has recently been reported; however, the mechanisms remain to be investigated. We examined the immunomodulatory functions of human MSCs (hMSCs) by coculturing them with purified subpopulations of immune cells and report here that hMSCs altered the cytokine secretion profile of dendritic cells (DCs), naive and effector T cells (T helper 1 [T(H)1] and T(H)2), and natural killer (NK) cells to induce a more anti-inflammatory or tolerant phenotype. Specifically, the hMSCs caused mature DCs type 1 (DC1) to decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and mature DC2 to increase interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion; hMSCs caused T(H)1 cells to decrease interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and caused the T(H)2 cells to increase secretion of IL-4; hMSCs caused an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells (T(Regs)) present; and hMSCs decreased secretion of IFN-gamma from the NK cells. Mechanistically, the hMSCs produced elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) in co-cultures, and inhibitors of PGE(2) production mitigated hMSC-mediated immune modulation. These data offer insight into the interactions between allogeneic MSCs and immune cells and provide mechanisms likely involved with the in vivo MSC-mediated induction of tolerance that could be therapeutic for reduction of GVHD, rejection, and modulation of inflammation.
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              A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs.

              Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the archetypal multipotent progenitor cells derived in cultures of developed organs, are of unknown identity and native distribution. We have prospectively identified perivascular cells, principally pericytes, in multiple human organs including skeletal muscle, pancreas, adipose tissue, and placenta, on CD146, NG2, and PDGF-Rbeta expression and absence of hematopoietic, endothelial, and myogenic cell markers. Perivascular cells purified from skeletal muscle or nonmuscle tissues were myogenic in culture and in vivo. Irrespective of their tissue origin, long-term cultured perivascular cells retained myogenicity; exhibited at the clonal level osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic potentials; expressed MSC markers; and migrated in a culture model of chemotaxis. Expression of MSC markers was also detected at the surface of native, noncultured perivascular cells. Thus, blood vessel walls harbor a reserve of progenitor cells that may be integral to the origin of the elusive MSCs and other related adult stem cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Death Differ
                Cell Death Differ
                Cell Death and Differentiation
                Nature Publishing Group
                1350-9047
                1476-5403
                February 2014
                01 November 2013
                1 February 2014
                : 21
                : 2
                : 216-225
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , 225 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025, China
                [2 ]National Institutes for Food and Drug Control , No. 2 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050, China
                [3 ]Child Health Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey , New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , 225 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025, China. Tel: +86 21 63848329; E-mails: yufangshi@ 123456sibs.ac.cn or yingwang@ 123456sibs.ac.cn
                cdd2013158
                10.1038/cdd.2013.158
                3890955
                24185619
                Copyright © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

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