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      Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

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          Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality are major health problems worldwide. One potential risk factor for the development and maintenance of sleep disturbance is the parenting style experienced during childhood. However, its role in sleep disturbance in adulthood has not yet been estimated. This Japanese population study was done to clarify the relation between the parenting styles “care” and “overprotection” during childhood and sleep disturbance in adulthood.


          A total of 702 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed in 2011 for their perceptions of the parenting style of their parents by use of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and for sleep disturbance by use of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance (a global PSQI score > 5) was calculated using a logistic regression model.


          The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 29 %. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and physical factors in a comparison with the optimal parenting styles (high care and low overprotection), the ORs for sleep disturbance by men were significantly higher for low paternal care, by 2.49 times (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–5.09), and for high overprotection, by 2.40 times (95 % CI: 1.19–4.85), while the ORs were not significant for low maternal care and high overprotection. For women the only significant factor was high maternal overprotection, by 1.62 times (95 % CI: 1.05–2.52), while the ORs were not significant for low maternal care, low paternal care and high paternal overprotection. The association remained significant for high paternal overprotection for men after additionally controlling for depression.


          This study suggests that parenting style, especially inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood, is related to sleep disturbance in adulthood and that the association is much more significant for parents of the same sex as the child.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0926-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. An opportunity for prevention?

          As part of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 7954 respondents were questioned at baseline and 1 year later about sleep complaints and psychiatric symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of this community sample, 10.2% and 3.2% noted insomnia and hypersomnia, respectively, at the first interview. Forty percent of those with insomnia and 46.5% of those with hypersomnia had a psychiatric disorder compared with 16.4% of those with no sleep complaints. The risk of developing new major depression was much higher in those who had insomnia at both interviews compared with those without insomnia (odds ratio, 39.8; 95% confidence interval, 19.8 to 80.0). The risk of developing new major depression was much less for those who had insomnia that had resolved by the second visit (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 5.3). Further research is needed to determine if early recognition and treatment of sleep disturbances can prevent future psychiatric disorders.
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            Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults.

            Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the general population, and is commonly encountered in medical practices. Insomnia is defined as the subjective perception of difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity for sleep, and that results in some form of daytime impairment.1 Insomnia may present with a variety of specific complaints and etiologies, making the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia demanding on a clinician's time. The purpose of this clinical guideline is to provide clinicians with a practical framework for the assessment and disease management of chronic adult insomnia, using existing evidence-based insomnia practice parameters where available, and consensus-based recommendations to bridge areas where such parameters do not exist. Unless otherwise stated, "insomnia" refers to chronic insomnia, which is present for at least a month, as opposed to acute or transient insomnia, which may last days to weeks.
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              Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression.

              This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents' and children's gender. Mothers' harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers', whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers' harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers' harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

                Author and article information

                (81) 92-642-5320 ,
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BioMed Central (London )
                7 July 2016
                7 July 2016
                : 16
                [ ]Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, 812-8582 Japan
                [ ]Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
                [ ]Division of Research Management, Center for Cohort Studies, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
                [ ]Hisayama Research Institute for Lifestyle Diseases, Fukuoka, Japan
                [ ]Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2016

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                psqi, pbi, parenting, care, overprotection, sleep


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