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      Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

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          Abstract

          Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii.

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          A historic account of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the continental United States, with remarks on their identification.

           Martin Hauser (2011)
          Drosophila suzukii is an oriental species first reported outside Asia from Hawaii in 1980. The first confirmed records for the continental United States were made in 2008 in California. The identification of this pest is difficult because very few published resources exist. It has since been recorded in Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Utah, Michigan, Wisconsin, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida. Males are relatively easy to identify by the black apical wing spots and the single row of combs on the first and second tarsal segment of the fore leg. The male genitalia are also very characteristic and will aid in identifying teneral specimens. Females can be identified by the large ovipositor, which is 6-7 times as long as the diameter of the spermatheca. Immature stages can only be identified by molecular techniques. Although this species has been recorded from many US states and Canadian provinces, it has not been established in all of these places, and the main economic damage is restricted to the western part of North America. With the characters laid out in this paper, it should be possible to identify the pest with high certainty. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
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            Developing Drosophila suzukii management programs for sweet cherry in the western United States.

            The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a newly introduced pest of sweet cherry on the west coast of North America which produces about 97% of the value of the US sweet cherry crop. D. suzukii initially caused considerable economic loss to cherry growers, who were unaware of this new pest. Little control information was available at the time of initial infestation. Pest control studies were initiated to examine the materials, timings and application methods to control D. suzukii in three major cherry-producing states (California, Oregon and Washington). Three classes of registered insecticides, organophosphates, pyrethroids and spinosyns, have demonstrated good topical or residual activity against D. suzukii. Neonicotinoids and the systemic organophosphate dimethoate appear to be able to kill eggs or larvae in fruit. Preliminary timing studies indicate that at least two preharvest insecticide sprays are required to obtain control of D. suzukii in California cherry orchards. Aerially applied malathion ULV (ultra-low volume) appears to be a viable control tactic for this pest. The results presented here form the basis for developing D. suzukii management programs in the western United States. Additional studies are needed to refine management practices for the different growing regions and conventional versus organic production requirements. Cherry growers will likely need to apply broad-spectrum insecticides in a prophylactic manner until treatment thresholds and monitoring methods have been developed and validated. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
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              Linking Genomics and Ecology to Investigate the Complex Evolution of an Invasive Drosophila Pest

              Drosophilid fruit flies have provided science with striking cases of behavioral adaptation and genetic innovation. A recent example is the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii, which, unlike most other Drosophila, lays eggs and feeds on undamaged, ripening fruits. This not only poses a serious threat for fruit cultivation but also offers an interesting model to study evolution of behavioral innovation. We developed genome and transcriptome resources for D. suzukii. Coupling analyses of these data with field observations, we propose a hypothesis of the origin of its peculiar ecology. Using nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses, we confirm its Asian origin and reveal a surprising sister relationship between the eugracilis and the melanogaster subgroups. Although the D. suzukii genome is comparable in size and repeat content to other Drosophila species, it has the lowest nucleotide substitution rate among the species analyzed in this study. This finding is compatible with the overwintering diapause of D. suzukii, which results in a reduced number of generations per year compared with its sister species. Genome-scale relaxed clock analyses support a late Miocene origin of D. suzukii, concomitant with paleogeological and climatic conditions that suggest an adaptation to temperate montane forests, a hypothesis confirmed by field trapping. We propose a causal link between the ecological adaptations of D. suzukii in its native habitat and its invasive success in Europe and North America.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                3 February 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, 80055, Portici (Na), Italy
                [2 ]Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2300 RA, Leiden, Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
                Institute of Zoology, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: EG MG CvA. Performed the experiments: EG MG PC SC CvA. Analyzed the data: EG MG PC CvA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EG MG CvA. Wrote the paper: EG MG CvA.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-47105
                10.1371/journal.pone.0147382
                4739611
                26840953
                © 2016 Guerrieri et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Pages: 28
                Product
                Funding
                PIRSES 318246 ASCII Ameliorating the sustainable control of invasive insects https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal4/desktop/en/opportunities/fp7/calls/fp7-people-2012-irses.html vasive insects (2012).
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