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How ‘Circumpolar’ is Ainu Music? Musical and Genetic Perspectives on the History of the Japanese Archipelago

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      Reconstructing Native American Population History

      The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved 1–5 . One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single 6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia 9–15 . The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.
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        Farmers and their languages: the first expansions.

        The largest movements and replacements of human populations since the end of the Ice Ages resulted from the geographically uneven rise of food production around the world. The first farming societies thereby gained great advantages over hunter-gatherer societies. But most of those resulting shifts of populations and languages are complex, controversial, or both. We discuss the main complications and specific examples involving 15 language families. Further progress will depend on interdisciplinary research that combines archaeology, crop and livestock studies, physical anthropology, genetics, and linguistics.
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          Algorithm AS 136 A K-Means Clustering Algorithm

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Ethnomusicology Forum
            Ethnomusicology Forum
            Informa UK Limited
            1741-1912
            1741-1920
            October 14 2015
            September 29 2015
            : 24
            : 3
            : 443-467
            10.1080/17411912.2015.1084236
            © 2015

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