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      The Development of Stimulus and Response Interference Control in Midchildhood

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          Abstract

          Interference control, the ability to overcome distraction from irrelevant information, undergoes considerable improvement during childhood, yet the mechanisms driving these changes remain unclear. The present study investigated the relative influence of interference at the level of the stimulus or the response. Seven-, 10-, and 20-year-olds completed a flanker paradigm in which stimulus and response interference was experimentally manipulated. The influence of stimulus interference decreased from 7 to 10 years, whereas there was no difference in response interference across age groups. The findings demonstrate that a range of processes contribute to the development of interference control and may influence performance to a greater or lesser extent depending on the task requirements and the age of the child.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task

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            Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review.

             Colin MacLeod (1991)
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              A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety.

              Policy-makers are considering large-scale programs aimed at self-control to improve citizens' health and wealth and reduce crime. Experimental and economic studies suggest such programs could reap benefits. Yet, is self-control important for the health, wealth, and public safety of the population? Following a cohort of 1,000 children from birth to the age of 32 y, we show that childhood self-control predicts physical health, substance dependence, personal finances, and criminal offending outcomes, following a gradient of self-control. Effects of children's self-control could be disentangled from their intelligence and social class as well as from mistakes they made as adolescents. In another cohort of 500 sibling-pairs, the sibling with lower self-control had poorer outcomes, despite shared family background. Interventions addressing self-control might reduce a panoply of societal costs, save taxpayers money, and promote prosperity.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Nottingham
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Lucy Cragg, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom lucy.cragg@ 123456nottingham.ac.uk
                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Role: Incoming Editor
                Journal
                Dev Psychol
                Dev Psychol
                Developmental Psychology
                American Psychological Association
                0012-1649
                1939-0599
                23 November 2015
                February 2016
                : 52
                : 2
                : 242-252
                dev_52_2_242 2015-53032-001
                10.1037/dev0000074
                4725334
                26595353
                © 2015 The Author(s)

                This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s). Author(s) grant(s) the American Psychological Association the exclusive right to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.

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