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      Profiling of ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides pools in response to DNA damage and repair induced by methyl methanesulfonate in cancer and normal cells


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          The absolute and relative pool sizes of deoxyribonucleotides (dRNs) are essential in DNA replication fidelity, DNA damage and repair. We found in this study that although DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) seemed similar in cancer (HepG2) and normal (LO2) cells, more extensive alterations in ribonucleotides (RNs) and dRNs pools occurred in HepG2 cells indicating that HepG2 cells were more vigilant to DNA damage. After 10 h repair, RNs pools were still severely perturbed in LO2 cells. Compared to LO2 cells, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) pools in HepG2 cells elevated by more folds which could facilitate more efficient DNA repair and improve survival probability following DNA damage, although this should definitely lead to higher mutation rates. DNA repair was more efficient in HepG2 cells at S phase and it partly came to an end while DNA repair was still uncompleted in LO2 cells outside S phase. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that HepG2 and LO2 cells presented many differences in nucleotide metabolism, cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair pathways in response to DNA damage, which could be potential targets for cancer treatment.

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          Most cited references31

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          Distribution of methyl and ethyl adducts following alkylation with monofunctional alkylating agents.

          J Beranek (1990)
          Alkylating agents, because of their ability to react directly with DNA either in vitro or in vivo, or following metabolic activation as in the case of the dialkylnitrosamines, have been used extensively in studying the mechanisms of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Their occurrence is widespread in the environment and human exposure from natural and pollutant sources is universal. Since most of these chemicals show varying degrees of both carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, and exhibit compound-specific binding patterns, they provide an excellent model for studying molecular dosimetry. Molecular dosimetry defines dose as the number of adducts bound per macromolecule and relates the binding of these adducts to the human mutagenic or carcinogenic response. This review complies DNA alkylation data for both methylating and ethylating agents in a variety of systems and discusses the role these alkylation products plays in molecular mutagenesis.
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            Survival of DNA damage in yeast directly depends on increased dNTP levels allowed by relaxed feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase.

            In eukaryotes, DNA damage elicits a multifaceted response that includes cell cycle arrest, transcriptional activation of DNA repair genes, and, in multicellular organisms, apoptosis. We demonstrate that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA damage leads to a 6- to 8-fold increase in dNTP levels. This increase is conferred by an unusual, relaxed dATP feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Complete elimination of dATP feedback inhibition by mutation of the allosteric activity site in RNR results in 1.6-2 times higher dNTP pools under normal growth conditions, and the pools increase an additional 11- to 17-fold during DNA damage. The increase in dNTP pools dramatically improves survival following DNA damage, but at the same time leads to higher mutation rates. We propose that increased survival and mutation rates result from more efficient translesion DNA synthesis at elevated dNTP concentrations.
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              DNA precursor metabolism and genomic stability.

              K Mathews (2006)
              Intracellular concentrations of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are closely regulated, and imbalances in the four dNTP pools have genotoxic consequences. Replication errors leading to mutations can occur, for example, if one dNTP in excess drives formation of a non-Watson-Crick base pair or if it forces replicative DNA chain elongation past a mismatch before DNA polymerase can correct the error by 3' exonuclease proofreading. This review focuses on developments since 1994, when the field was last reviewed comprehensively. Emphasis is placed on the following topics: 1) novel aspects of dNTP pool regulation, 2) dNTP pool asymmetries as mutagenic determinants, 3) dNTP metabolism and hypermutagenesis of retroviral genomes, 4) dNTP metabolism and mutagenesis in the mitochondrial genome, 5) chemical modification of nucleotides as a premutagenic event, 6) relationships between dNTP metabolism, genome stability, aging, and cancer.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                24 November 2017
                4 October 2017
                : 8
                : 60
                : 101707-101719
                1 State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau Institute for Applied Research in Medicine and Health, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, China
                2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Wei Zhang, wzhang@ 123456must.edu.mo
                Copyright: © 2017 Guo et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                dna damage,ribonucleotides,deoxyribonucleotides,perturbation,gene expression


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