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      Wearable Sensors: Modalities, Challenges, and Prospects

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          Abstract

          Wearable sensors have recently seen a large increase in both research and commercialization. However, success in wearable sensors has been a mix of both progress and setbacks. Most of commercial progress has been in smart adaptation of existing mechanical, electrical and optical methods of measuring the body. This adaptation has involved innovations in how to miniaturize sensing technologies, how to make them conformal and flexible, and in development of companion software that increases the value of the measured data. However, chemical sensing modalities have experienced greater challenges in commercial adoption, especially for non-invasive chemical sensors. There have also been significant challenges in making significant fundamental improvements to existing mechanical, electrical, and optical sensing modalities, especially in improving their specificity of detection. Many of these challenges can be understood by appreciating the body’s surface (skin) as more of an information barrier than as an information source. With a deeper understanding of the fundamental challenges faced for wearable sensors, and of the state-of-the-art for wearable sensor technology, the roadmap becomes clearer for creating the next generation of innovations and breakthroughs.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          101128948
          31848
          Lab Chip
          Lab Chip
          Lab on a chip
          1473-0197
          1473-0189
          2 December 2017
          16 January 2018
          16 January 2019
          : 18
          : 2
          : 217-248
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Novel Devices Laboratory, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221, USA
          [2 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
          [3 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA
          [4 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
          [5 ]Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
          [6 ]Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
          [7 ]Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Chemistry, Neurological Surgery, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Simpson Querrey Institute & Feinberg Medical School, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
          Author notes
          [* ]Corresponding authors
          Article
          PMC5771841 PMC5771841 5771841 nihpa923479
          10.1039/c7lc00914c
          5771841
          29182185
          b576ba42-b7cf-47d0-928d-b0a82c7c535d
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