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      A Spanish Adaptation of the Computer and Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaires (CPQ and MDPQ) for Older Adults

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          Abstract

          Technology can help support the goal of many older adults to live independently, though cognitive, attitudinal, and other barriers often result in a “digital divide” in which older adults use and adopt new technology at a lower rate compared to younger adults. Due to the many potential benefits of technology it is not surprising that interest in tools that assess technology proficiency among older adults has increased. These tools can help support older adult technology research and training. However, to understand these issues more broadly, especially cross-cultural determinants of technology proficiency, translated, validated, and standardized measures of proficiency are necessary. For example, according to the last Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2015), Spain has experienced the largest increase in technology adoption among European Union nations in the past few years, indicating potential cultural mediation of technology adoption and use. To benefit the investigation of cross-cultural differences and their causes, we adapted the Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire (MDPQ) and Computer Proficiency Questionnaire (CPQ) for older adults in Spain, including the full and brief forms of each measure. Consistent with English versions of the questionnaires, the scales and their subscales were found to be reliable and valid measures of mobile device and computer proficiency in Spanish older adults. However, in contrast to earlier studies, the factor structure for both questionnaires simplified into two factors for the population under study. We conclude that the Spanish versions of the MDPQ and CPQ can be employed as useful tools for measuring mobile device and computer proficiency in the Spanish older adult population for research and training purposes.

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          The technology acceptance model (TAM): A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach to explaining teachers’ adoption of digital technology in education

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            Older Adults Perceptions of Technology and Barriers to Interacting with Tablet Computers: A Focus Group Study

            Background New technologies provide opportunities for the delivery of broad, flexible interventions with older adults. Focus groups were conducted to: (1) understand older adults’ familiarity with, and barriers to, interacting with new technologies and tablets; and (2) utilize user-engagement in refining an intervention protocol. Methods Eighteen older adults (65–76 years old; 83.3% female) who were novice tablet users participated in discussions about their perceptions of and barriers to interacting with tablets. We conducted three separate focus groups and used a generic qualitative design applying thematic analysis to analyse the data. The focus groups explored attitudes toward tablets and technology in general. We also explored the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using tablets, familiarity with, and barriers to interacting with tablets. In two of the focus groups, participants had previous computing experience (e.g., desktop), while in the other, participants had no previous computing experience. None of the participants had any previous experience with tablet computers. Results The themes that emerged were related to barriers (i.e., lack of instructions and guidance, lack of knowledge and confidence, health-related barriers, cost); disadvantages and concerns (i.e., too much and too complex technology, feelings of inadequacy, and comparison with younger generations, lack of social interaction and communication, negative features of tablets); advantages (i.e., positive features of tablets, accessing information, willingness to adopt technology); and skepticism about using tablets and technology in general. After brief exposure to tablets, participants emphasized the likelihood of using a tablet in the future. Conclusions Our findings suggest that most of our participants were eager to adopt new technology and willing to learn using a tablet. However, they voiced apprehension about lack of, or lack of clarity in, instructions and support. Understanding older adults’ perceptions of technology is important to assist with introducing it to this population and maximize the potential of technology to facilitate independent living.
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              [International Test Commission Guidelines for test translation and adaptation: second edition].

              Adapting tests across cultures is a common practice that has increased in all evaluation areas in recent years. We live in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual world in which the tests are used to support decision-making in the educational, clinical, organizational and other areas, so the adaptation of tests becomes a necessity. The main goal of this paper is to present the second edition of the guidelines of the International Test Commission (ITC) for adapting tests across cultures. A task force of six international experts reviewed the original guidelines proposed by the International Test Commission, taking into account the advances and developments of the field. As a result of the revision this new edition consists of twenty guidelines grouped into six sections: Precondition, test development, confirmation, administration, score scales and interpretation, and document. The different sections are reviewed, and the possible sources of error influencing the tests translation and adaptation analyzed. Twenty guidelines are proposed for translating and adapting tests across cultures. Finally we discuss the future perspectives of the guidelines in relation to the new developments in the field of psychological and educational assessment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                31 May 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 1165
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Departamento de Metodología, Psicología Básica y Psicología Social, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir , Valencia, Spain
                [2] 2Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación e Intervención Terapéutica, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir , Valencia, Spain
                [3] 3Department of Psychology, Florida State University , Tallahassee, FL, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ana Lucia Pereira, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Evgueni Borokhovski, Concordia University, Canada; Pedro Daniel Ferreira, Universidade do Porto, Portugal

                *Correspondence: Carmen Moret-Tatay mariacarmen.moret@ 123456ucv.es

                This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01165
                6554441
                31214066
                b59290e4-1cb3-45fa-a0a3-1d41c2c50b39
                Copyright © 2019 Moret-Tatay, Beneyto-Arrojo, Gutierrez, Boot and Charness.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 26 October 2018
                : 02 May 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 9, Words: 5387
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                mobile device proficiency,computer proficiency,aging,digitalization,age related differences,digital divide,spanish translation

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