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      Applications of artificial intelligence in COVID-19 pandemic: A comprehensive review

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          Abstract

          During the current global public health emergency caused by novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), researchers and medical experts started working day and night to search for new technologies to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies have shown that artificial intelligence (AI) has been successfully employed in the health sector for various healthcare procedures. This study comprehensively reviewed the research and development on state-of-the-art applications of artificial intelligence for combating the COVID-19 pandemic. In the process of literature retrieval, the relevant literature from citation databases including ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Preprints from arXiv, medRxiv, and bioRxiv was selected. Recent advances in the field of AI-based technologies are critically reviewed and summarized. Various challenges associated with the use of these technologies are highlighted and based on updated studies and critical analysis, research gaps and future recommendations are identified and discussed. The comparison between various machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) methods, the dominant AI-based technique, mostly used ML and DL methods for COVID-19 detection, diagnosis, screening, classification, drug repurposing, prediction, and forecasting, and insights about where the current research is heading are highlighted. Recent research and development in the field of artificial intelligence has greatly improved the COVID-19 screening, diagnostics, and prediction and results in better scale-up, timely response, most reliable, and efficient outcomes, and sometimes outperforms humans in certain healthcare tasks. This review article will help researchers, healthcare institutes and organizations, government officials, and policymakers with new insights into how AI can control the COVID-19 pandemic and drive more research and studies for mitigating the COVID-19 outbreak.

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          World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)

          An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a relative of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is caused by a betacoronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 90,870 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 3,000 deaths worldwide. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19.
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            Automated detection of COVID-19 cases using deep neural networks with X-ray images

            The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-2019), which first appeared in Wuhan city of China in December 2019, spread rapidly around the world and became a pandemic. It has caused a devastating effect on both daily lives, public health, and the global economy. It is critical to detect the positive cases as early as possible so as to prevent the further spread of this epidemic and to quickly treat affected patients. The need for auxiliary diagnostic tools has increased as there are no accurate automated toolkits available. Recent findings obtained using radiology imaging techniques suggest that such images contain salient information about the COVID-19 virus. Application of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) techniques coupled with radiological imaging can be helpful for the accurate detection of this disease, and can also be assistive to overcome the problem of a lack of specialized physicians in remote villages. In this study, a new model for automatic COVID-19 detection using raw chest X-ray images is presented. The proposed model is developed to provide accurate diagnostics for binary classification (COVID vs. No-Findings) and multi-class classification (COVID vs. No-Findings vs. Pneumonia). Our model produced a classification accuracy of 98.08% for binary classes and 87.02% for multi-class cases. The DarkNet model was used in our study as a classifier for the you only look once (YOLO) real time object detection system. We implemented 17 convolutional layers and introduced different filtering on each layer. Our model (available at (https://github.com/muhammedtalo/COVID-19)) can be employed to assist radiologists in validating their initial screening, and can also be employed via cloud to immediately screen patients.
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              Modified SEIR and AI prediction of the epidemics trend of COVID-19 in China under public health interventions

              Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak originating in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, coincided with chunyun, the period of mass migration for the annual Spring Festival. To contain its spread, China adopted unprecedented nationwide interventions on January 23 2020. These policies included large-scale quarantine, strict controls on travel and extensive monitoring of suspected cases. However, it is unknown whether these policies have had an impact on the epidemic. We sought to show how these control measures impacted the containment of the epidemic. Methods We integrated population migration data before and after January 23 and most updated COVID-19 epidemiological data into the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model to derive the epidemic curve. We also used an artificial intelligence (AI) approach, trained on the 2003 SARS data, to predict the epidemic. Results We found that the epidemic of China should peak by late February, showing gradual decline by end of April. A five-day delay in implementation would have increased epidemic size in mainland China three-fold. Lifting the Hubei quarantine would lead to a second epidemic peak in Hubei province in mid-March and extend the epidemic to late April, a result corroborated by the machine learning prediction. Conclusions Our dynamic SEIR model was effective in predicting the COVID-19 epidemic peaks and sizes. The implementation of control measures on January 23 2020 was indispensable in reducing the eventual COVID-19 epidemic size.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Expert Syst Appl
                Expert Syst Appl
                Expert Systems with Applications
                Elsevier Ltd.
                0957-4174
                0957-4174
                4 August 2021
                15 December 2021
                4 August 2021
                : 185
                : 115695
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences & Technology, H-12, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
                [b ]Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 25000, Pakistan
                [c ]National Cyber Security Auditing and Evaluation LAb, National University of Sciences & Technology, MCS Campus, Rawalpindi 43600, Pakistan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author.
                Article
                S0957-4174(21)01079-4 115695
                10.1016/j.eswa.2021.115695
                8359727
                34400854
                b59796c6-b508-455c-a96a-b1b25106d7a8
                © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 2 March 2021
                : 14 May 2021
                : 28 July 2021
                Categories
                Review

                artificial intelligence,machine learning,covid-19,sars-cov-2,deep learning,drug repurposing

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