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      Frequency of Ophthalmological Findings in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

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          Abstract

          Introduction: The symptoms of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) may range from mild to severe. Patients usually present with fever, cough, and other respiratory tract symptoms, but may also be asymptomatic. Some studies have also indicated the ocular involvement by the virus. This study aims to look deeply into all ophthalmic findings seen in COVID-19 patients and their clinical characteristics.

          Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the COVID-19 unit of a tertiary care hospital, Pakistan. Data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and March 2021 were included in the study. Ophthalmological examination was done at the time of admission and was repeated every alternate day to look for any ophthalmological manifestation.

          Results: Out of 441 (n= 441), 61 (13.8%) participants had ophthalmological findings on examination. Patients with ophthalmological findings were significantly younger compared to patients without ophthalmological findings (42 ± 6 years vs. 44 ± 7; p-value, 0.03). C-reactive protein (CRP) was also significantly higher in patients with ophthalmological findings (122.2 ± 16.2 vs. 112.8 ± 19.8; p-value, 0.005). The most common ophthalmological finding was conjunctival irritation (50.8%), followed by diplopia (27.8%) and cotton wool spots (27.8%).

          Conclusion: Ophthalmological findings are prevalent in patients with COVID-19. In this study, patients with higher CRP levels were associated with ophthalmological findings. It is important to conduct ophthalmological examinations in patients with COVID-19, as they may give a clue about other complications associated with COVID-19.

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          Most cited references 22

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          COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

          As of March 12, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been confirmed in 125 048 people worldwide, carrying a mortality of approximately 3·7%, 1 compared with a mortality rate of less than 1% from influenza. There is an urgent need for effective treatment. Current focus has been on the development of novel therapeutics, including antivirals and vaccines. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subgroup of patients with severe COVID-19 might have a cytokine storm syndrome. We recommend identification and treatment of hyperinflammation using existing, approved therapies with proven safety profiles to address the immediate need to reduce the rising mortality. Current management of COVID-19 is supportive, and respiratory failure from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality. 2 Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is an under-recognised, hyperinflammatory syndrome characterised by a fulminant and fatal hypercytokinaemia with multiorgan failure. In adults, sHLH is most commonly triggered by viral infections 3 and occurs in 3·7–4·3% of sepsis cases. 4 Cardinal features of sHLH include unremitting fever, cytopenias, and hyperferritinaemia; pulmonary involvement (including ARDS) occurs in approximately 50% of patients. 5 A cytokine profile resembling sHLH is associated with COVID-19 disease severity, characterised by increased interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, and tumour necrosis factor-α. 6 Predictors of fatality from a recent retrospective, multicentre study of 150 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China, included elevated ferritin (mean 1297·6 ng/ml in non-survivors vs 614·0 ng/ml in survivors; p 39·4°C 49 Organomegaly None 0 Hepatomegaly or splenomegaly 23 Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly 38 Number of cytopenias * One lineage 0 Two lineages 24 Three lineages 34 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 4·0 mmol/L 64 Fibrinogen (g/L) >2·5 g/L 0 ≤2·5 g/L 30 Ferritin ng/ml 6000 ng/ml 50 Serum aspartate aminotransferase <30 IU/L 0 ≥30 IU/L 19 Haemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate No 0 Yes 35 Known immunosuppression † No 0 Yes 18 The Hscore 11 generates a probability for the presence of secondary HLH. HScores greater than 169 are 93% sensitive and 86% specific for HLH. Note that bone marrow haemophagocytosis is not mandatory for a diagnosis of HLH. HScores can be calculated using an online HScore calculator. 11 HLH=haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. * Defined as either haemoglobin concentration of 9·2 g/dL or less (≤5·71 mmol/L), a white blood cell count of 5000 white blood cells per mm3 or less, or platelet count of 110 000 platelets per mm3 or less, or all of these criteria combined. † HIV positive or receiving longterm immunosuppressive therapy (ie, glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine).
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            Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus

            The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.
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              Critical Care Utilization for the COVID-19 Outbreak in Lombardy, Italy: Early Experience and Forecast During an Emergency Response

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                10 May 2021
                May 2021
                : 13
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Internal Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, PAK
                [2 ] Medicine and Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, PAK
                [3 ] Internal Medicine, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, PAK
                [4 ] Internal Medicine, University of Health Sciences (UHS), Lahore, PAK
                [5 ] Anesthesiology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK
                [6 ] Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.14942
                8189544
                Copyright © 2021, Khan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Internal Medicine
                Ophthalmology
                Infectious Disease

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