5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Update: Effects of Antioxidant and Non-Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation on Immune Function

      ,

      Nutrition Reviews

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The purpose of this manuscript is to review the impact of supplementation with vitamins E and C, carotenoids, and the B vitamins on parameters of innate and adaptive immune function as reported from clinical trials in humans. There is evidence to support causal effects of supplementation with vitamins E and C and the carotenoids singly and in combination on selected aspects of immunity, including the functional capacity of innate immune cells, lymphocyte proliferation, and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. Controlled intervention trials of B vitamin-containing multivitamin supplements suggest beneficial effects on immune parameters and clinical outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 152

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality.

          Results from observational studies suggest that micronutrient status is a determinant of the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. We enrolled 1078 pregnant women infected with HIV in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to examine the effects of daily supplements of vitamin A (preformed vitamin A and beta carotene), multivitamins (vitamins B, C, and E), or both on progression of HIV disease, using survival models. The median follow-up with respect to survival was 71 months (interquartile range, 46 to 80). Of 271 women who received multivitamins, 67 had progression to World Health Organization (WHO) stage 4 disease or died--the primary outcome--as compared with 83 of 267 women who received placebo (24.7 percent vs. 31.1 percent; relative risk, 0.71; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.98; P=0.04). This regimen was also associated with reductions in the relative risk of death related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (0.73; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51 to 1.04; P=0.09), progression to WHO stage 4 (0.50; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.90; P=0.02), or progression to stage 3 or higher (0.72; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.90; P=0.003). Multivitamins also resulted in significantly higher CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts and significantly lower viral loads. The effects of receiving vitamin A alone were smaller and for the most part not significantly different from those produced by placebo. Adding vitamin A to the multivitamin regimen reduced the benefit with regard to some of the end points examined. Multivitamin supplements delay the progression of HIV disease and provide an effective, low-cost means of delaying the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Vitamin E, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

            Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Its incidence has also been increasing lately in developing countries. Several lines of evidence support a role for oxidative stress and inflammation in atherogenesis. Oxidation of lipoproteins is a hallmark in atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces inflammation as it induces adhesion and influx of monocytes and influences cytokine release by monocytes. A number of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) modulate monocyte adhesion to endothelium. C-reactive protein (CRP), a prototypic marker of inflammation, is a risk marker for CVD and it could contribute to atherosclerosis. Hence, dietary micronutrients having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may have a potential beneficial effect with regard to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Several lines of evidence suggest that among different forms of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (AT) has potential beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease. AT supplementation in human subjects and animal models has been shown to decrease lipid peroxidation, superoxide (O2-) production by impairing the assembly of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) oxidase as well as by decreasing the expression of scavenger receptors (SR-A and CD36), particularly important in the formation of foam cells. AT therapy, especially at high doses, has been shown to decrease the release of proinflammatory cytokines, the chemokine IL-8 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels as well as decrease adhesion of monocytes to endothelium. In addition, AT has been shown to decrease CRP levels, in patients with CVD and in those with risk factors for CVD. The mechanisms that account for nonantioxidant effects of AT include the inhibition of protein kinase C, 5-lipoxygenase, tyrosine-kinase as well as cyclooxygenase-2. Based on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, AT (at the appropriate dose and form) could have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease in a high-risk population.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Lutein and zeaxanthin as protectors of lipid membranes against oxidative damage: the structural aspects.

              Two main xanthophyll pigments are present in the membranes of macula lutea of the vision apparatus of primates, including humans: lutein and zeaxanthin. Protection against oxidative damage of the lipid matrix and screening against excess radiation are the most likely physiological functions of these xanthophyll pigments in macular membranes. A protective effect of lutein and zeaxanthin against oxidative damage of egg yolk lecithin liposomal membranes induced by exposure to UV radiation and incubation with 2, 2'-azobis(2-methypropionamidine)dihydrochloride, a water-soluble peroxidation initiator, was studied. Both lutein and zeaxanthin were found to protect lipid membranes against free radical attack with almost the same efficacy. The UV-induced lipid oxidation was also slowed down by lutein and zeaxanthin to a very similar rate in the initial stage of the experiments (5-15 min illumination) but zeaxanthin appeared to be a better photoprotector during the prolonged UV exposure. The decrease in time of a protective efficacy of lutein was attributed to the photooxidation of the carotenoid itself. Both lutein and zeaxanthin were found to slightly modify mechanical properties of the liposomes in a very similar fashion as concluded on the basis of H(1) NMR and diffractometric measurements of pure egg yolk membranes and membranes pigmented with the xanthophylls. Linear dichroism analysis of the mean orientation of the dipole transition moment of the xanthophylls incorporated to the lipid multibilayers revealed essentially different orientation of zeaxanthin and lutein in the membranes. Zeaxanthin was found to adopt roughly vertical orientation with respect to the plane of the membrane. The relatively large orientation angle between the transition dipole and the axis normal to the plane of the membrane found in the case of lutein (67 degrees in the case of 2 mol% lutein in EYPC membranes) was interpreted as a representation of the existence of two orthogonally oriented pools of lutein, one following the orientation of zeaxanthin and the second parallel with respect to the plane of the membrane. The differences in the protective efficacy of lutein and zeaxanthin in lipid membranes were attributed to a different organization of zeaxanthin-lipid and lutein-lipid membranes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrition Reviews
                Wiley
                00296643
                May 2007
                June 28 2008
                : 65
                : 5
                : 181-217
                Article
                10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.tb00298.x
                17566547
                © 2008

                Comments

                Comment on this article