The three-dimensional organization of the genome supports regulated gene expression, recombination, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) 1–3 has revealed a complex genomic landscape of internal chromosome structures in vertebrate cells 4–11 yet how sister chromatids topologically interact in replicated chromosomes has remained elusive due to their identical sequences. Here, we present sister-chromatid-sensitive Hi-C (scsHi-C) based on nascent DNA labeling with 4-thio-thymidine. Genome-wide conformation maps of human chromosomes revealed that sister chromatid pairs interact most frequently at the boundaries of topologically associating domains (TADs). Continuous loading of a dynamic cohesin pool separates sister-chromatid pairs inside TADs and is required to focus sister chromatid contacts at TAD boundaries. We identified a subset of TADs that are overall highly paired, characterized by facultative heterochromatin, as well as insulated topological domains that form separately within individual sister chromatids. The rich pattern of sister chromatid topologies and our scsHi-C technology will make it possible to dissect how physical interactions between identical DNA molecules contribute to DNA repair, gene expression, chromosome segregation, and potentially other biological processes.