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      Is Open Access

      Ginkgolide B ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress


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          Ginkgolide B (GB) is a terpene lactone component found in Ginkgo biloba, which has a protective role on ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was aimed at exploring the protective mechanism of GB on the myocardial I/R.

          Patients and methods

          Myocardial I/R model was established on Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, lactic dehydrogenase, and myoglobin were determined by a 200FR NEO automatic biochemical analyzer. Histological examination was performed through HE and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. The expression levels of p-PERK, p-IRE1α, ATF6, p-AKT, and mTOR were detected by Western blot.


          The results exhibited that GB treatment suppressed the high levels of cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, lactic dehydrogenase, and myoglobin and ameliorated the damaged and irregularly arranged myocardial cells induced by I/R injury significantly, indicating that GB could ameliorate myocardial I/R injury. Moreover, the high expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress key proteins caused by I/R injury were suppressed significantly by GB treatment, including p-PERK, p-IRE1α, and ATF6. GB treatment also decreased the number of apoptotic cells compared with I/R group. In addition, activation of ER stress by Tunicamycin treatment could counteract the protective effects of GB on I/R injury, suggesting that GB ameliorated myocardial I/R injury through inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis. Finally, the decreased p-AKT and p-mTOR expressions caused by I/R injury were upregulated by GB and inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by LY294002 abolished the protective effects of GB on I/R injury, indicating that GB activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway during I/R injury.


          GB protected against myocardial I/R injury through inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

          Most cited references34

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          Endoplasmic reticulum stress: cell life and death decisions.

          C. Xu (2005)
          Disturbances in the normal functions of the ER lead to an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response, the unfolded protein response, which is aimed initially at compensating for damage but can eventually trigger cell death if ER dysfunction is severe or prolonged. The mechanisms by which ER stress leads to cell death remain enigmatic, with multiple potential participants described but little clarity about which specific death effectors dominate in particular cellular contexts. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegeneration, heart disease, and diabetes.
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            Intracellular signaling by the unfolded protein response.

            The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). UPR activation triggers an extensive transcriptional response, which adjusts the ER protein folding capacity according to need. As such, the UPR constitutes a paradigm of an intracellular control mechanism that adjusts organelle abundance in response to environmental or developmental clues. The pathway involves activation of ER unfolded protein sensors that operate in parallel circuitries to transmit information across the ER membrane, activating a set of downstream transcription factors by mechanisms that are unusual yet rudimentarily conserved in all eukaryotes. Recent results shed light on the mechanisms by which unfolded proteins are sensed in the ER and by which the unfolded protein signals are relayed and integrated to reestablish homeostasis in the cell's protein folding capacity or-if this cannot be achieved-commit cells to apoptosis.
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              Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome.

              Despite improvements in interventional and pharmacological therapy for atherosclerotic disease, it is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Hence, there is a need for further development of more effective therapeutic approaches. This requires better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology of the disease. Recent research in the last decade has changed our view of acute coronary syndrome (ACS): from a mere lipid deposition to an inflammatory disease; from ACS exclusively due to plaque rupture to the novel definitions of plaque erosion or calcified nodule; from the notion of a superimposed thrombus with necessary lethal consequences to the concept of healed plaques and thrombus contributing to plaque progression. In the hope of improving our understanding of ACS, all these recently discovered concepts are reviewed in this article.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                26 February 2019
                : 13
                : 767-774
                Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui 452100, Henan, China, zhaoguoan622@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guoan Zhao, Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital Xinxiang Medical University, No 88 Jiangkang Road, Weihui 452100, Henan, China, Tel +86 0373 440 2425, Fax +86 0373 440 2573, Email zhaoguoan622@ 123456163.com
                © 2019 Guo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                myocardial injury,ginkgolide b,endoplasmic reticulum stress,apoptosis pi3k/akt/mtor pathway


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