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      Vaccination of infants aged 0 to 11 months at the Yaounde Gynaeco-obstetric and pediatric hospital in Cameroon: how complete and how timely?

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          Abstract

          Background

          Vaccination is a major, but simple and cost effective public health intervention in the prevention of infectious diseases, especially in children. Nowadays, many children still miss scheduled vaccines in the Extended Program of Immunization (EPI) or are being vaccinated after the recommended ages.This study was aimed at assessing vaccination completeness and timeliness in children aged 0 to 11 months attending the vaccination clinic of the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital.

          Methods

          This was an observational cross-sectional study over a period of 3 months (1st February to 30th April 2016). 400 mothers were interviewed and their children’s vaccination booklets analyzed. Information on the children and the parents was collected using a pretested questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariate and multivariate analysis with logistic regression was done to assess the determinants of completeness and timeliness.

          Results

          A total of 400 mother-infant pairs were sampled. The vaccination completeness rate was 96.3%. This rate varied between 99.50% for BCG and 94.36% for IPV. Most of the children were born at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric hospital where they were regularly receiving their vaccines. The proportion of correctly vaccinated infants was 73.3%. The most differed vaccines were BCG, PCV13 and IPV. Factors influencing immunization completeness were the father’s profession and the mother’s level of education.

          Conclusions

          Despite the high immunization coverage, some children did not complete their EPI vaccines and many of them took at least one vaccine after the recommended age.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12887-017-0954-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Factors influencing full immunization coverage among 12–23 months of age children in Ethiopia: evidence from the national demographic and health survey in 2011

          Background Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions to reduce child morbidity and mortality. The 2011 national demographic and health survey (DHS) indicated low full immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months in Ethiopia. Factors contributing to the low coverage of immunization have been poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with full immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months in Ethiopia. Methods This study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. A total of 1,927 mothers with children of 12–23 months of age were extracted from the children’s dataset. Mothers’ self-reported data and observations of vaccination cards were used to determine vaccine coverage. An adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was used to outline the independent predictors. Results The prevalence of fully immunized children was 24.3 %. Specific vaccination coverage for three doses of DPT, three doses of polio, measles and BCG were 36.5 %, 44.3 %, 55.7 % and 66.3 %, respectively. The multivariable analysis showed that sources of information from vaccination card [AOR 95 % CI; 7.7 (5.95-10.06)], received postnatal check-up within two months after birth [AOR 95 % CI; 1.8 (1.28-2.56)], women’s awareness of community conversation program [AOR 95 % CI; 1.9 (1.44-2.49)] and women in the rich wealth index [AOR 95 % CI; 1.4 (1.06-1.94)] were the predictors of full immunization coverage. Women from Afar [AOR 95 % CI; 0.07 (0.01-0.68)], Amhara [AOR 95 % CI; 0.33 (0.13-0.81)], Oromiya [AOR 95 % CI; 0.15 (0.06-0.37)], Somali [AOR 95 % CI; 0.15 (0.04-0.55)] and Southern Nation and Nationalities People administrative regions [AOR 95 % CI; 0.35 (0.14-0.87)] were less likely to fully vaccinate their children. Conclusion The overall full immunization coverage in Ethiopia was considerably low as compared to the national target set (66 %). Health service use and access to information on maternal and child health were found to predict full immunization coverage. Appropriate strategies should be devised to enhance health information and accessibility for full immunization coverage by addressing the variations among regions.
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            Vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in a district of Istanbul

            Background In order to control and eliminate the vaccine preventable diseases it is important to know the vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination. The primary objective of this study was to determine the complete vaccination rate; the reasons for non-vaccination and the predictors that influence vaccination of children. The other objective was to determine coverage of measles vaccination of the Measles Immunization Days (MID) 2005 for children aged 9 month to 6 years in a region of Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey. Methods A '30 × 7' cluster sampling design was used as the sampling method. Thirty streets were selected at random from study area. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 221 children. A Chi-square test and logistic regression was used for the statistical analyses. Content analysis method was used to evaluate the open-ended questions. Results The complete vaccination rate for study population was 84.5% and 3.2% of all children were totally non-vaccinated. The siblings of non-vaccinated children were also non-vaccinated. Reasons for non-vaccination were as follows: being in the village and couldn't reach to health care services; having no knowledge about vaccination; the father of child didn't allow vaccination; intercurrent illness of child during vaccination time; missed opportunities like not to shave off a vial for only one child. In logistic regression analysis, paternal and maternal levels of education and immigration time of both parents to Istanbul were found to influence whether children were completely vaccinated or non-vaccinated. Measles vaccination coverage during MID was 79.3%. Conclusion Efforts to increase vaccination coverage should take reasons for non-vaccination into account.
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              Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

              Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal) between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months), and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96), 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68) and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91). Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11) for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                andy_chiabi@yahoo.co.uk
                Journal
                BMC Pediatr
                BMC Pediatr
                BMC Pediatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2431
                19 December 2017
                19 December 2017
                2017
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2173 8504, GRID grid.412661.6, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, ; Yaounde, Cameroon
                [3 ]GRID grid.449595.0, Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé, Université des Montagnes, ; Bangangte, Cameroon
                Article
                954
                10.1186/s12887-017-0954-1
                5735527
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2017

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