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      Effect of tracheal lidocaine on intubating conditions during propofol-remifentanil target-controlled infusion without neuromuscular blockade in day-case anesthesia


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          Lidocaine is a useful intravenous and topical adjunct to facilitate tracheal intubation. We evaluated the effect of tracheal lidocaine on tracheal intubating conditions without neuromuscular blocking agent and hemodynamics during anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil target-controlled infusion (TCI).


          Fifty patients, aged 18-60 years, scheduled for closed reduction of fractured nasal bone were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 25) or lidocaine group (n = 25). Anesthesia was induced with propofol-remifentanil TCI with the effect-site concentration of 5 µg/ml and 5 ng/ml. Four minutes after the start of propofol-remifentanil TCI, 4% lidocaine or saline 3 ml was instilled to larynx and trachea, and intubation was performed 1 min later. Acceptable intubation was defined as excellent or good intubating conditions. Hemodynamic data, induction and recovery profiles were recorded.


          Intubating condition was clinically acceptable in 13 out of 25 (52%) patients in the control group and in 22 out of 25 (88%) in the lidocaine group, and there was a significant difference between the two groups in regard to acceptable intubating conditions (P = 0.005). Mean arterial pressure change over time was significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the heart rate between the two groups.


          This study demonstrated that laryngotracheal administration of 4% lidocaine could increase the percentage of acceptable conditions for tracheal intubation during propofol and remifentanil anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade.

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          Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I. Model development.

          Previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil. Sixty-five healthy adults (38 men and 27 women) ages 20 to 85 y received remifentanil by constant-rate infusion of 1 to 8 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 4 to 20 min. Frequent arterial blood samples were drawn and assayed for remifentanil concentration. The electroencephalogram was used as a measure of drug effect. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling was performed using the software package NONMEM. The influence of volunteer covariates were analyzed using a generalized additive model. The performances of the simple (without covariates) and complex (with covariates) models were evaluated prospectively in an additional 15 healthy participants ages 41 to 84 y. The parameters for the simple three-compartment pharmacokinetic model were V1 = 4.98 l, V2 = 9.01 l, V3 = 6.54 l, Cl1 = 2.46 l/min, Cl2 = 1.69 l/min, and Cl3 = 0.065 l/min. Age and lean body mass were significant covariates. From the ages of 20 to 85 y, V1 and Cl1 decreased by approximately 25% and 33%, respectively. The parameters for the simple sigmoid Emax pharmacodynamic model were Ke0 = 0.516 min-1, E0 = 20 Hz, Emax = 5.62 Hz, EC50 = 11.2 ng/ml, and gamma = 2.51. Age was a significant covariate of EC50 and Ke0, with both decreasing by approximately 50% for the age range studied. The complex pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model performed better than did the simple model when applied prospectively. This study identified (1) an effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil; (2) an effect of lean body mass on the pharmacokinetic parameters; and (3) no influence of gender on any pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameter.
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            Good clinical research practice in pharmacodynamic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents II: the Stockholm revision.

            The set of guidelines for good clinical research practice (GCRP) in pharmacodynamic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents, which was developed following an international consensus conference in Copenhagen, has been revised and updated following the second consensus conference in Stockholm in 2005. It is hoped that these guidelines will continue to help researchers in the field and assist the pharmaceutical industry and equipment manufacturers in enhancing the standards of the studies they sponsor.
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              Pharmacokinetic model driven infusion of propofol in children.

              A computer controlled infusion device for propofol was used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia in 20 children undergoing minor surgical procedures. The device was programmed with an adult pharmacokinetic model for propofol. During and after anaesthesia, blood samples were taken for measurement of propofol concentrations and it was found that the values obtained were systematically overpredicted by the delivery system algorithm. New pharmacokinetic microconstants were derived from our data which reflected more accurately the elimination and distribution of propofol in a prospective study involving another 10 children.

                Author and article information

                Korean J Anesthesiol
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
                The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists
                November 2013
                29 November 2013
                : 65
                : 5
                : 425-430
                Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jong-Yeop Kim, M.D. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 442-721, Korea. Tel: 82-31-219-5574, Fax: 82-31-219-5579, kjyeop@ 123456ajou.ac.kr
                Copyright © the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, 2013

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Clinical Research Article

                Anesthesiology & Pain management
                intravenous anesthesia,intubation,lidocaine
                Anesthesiology & Pain management
                intravenous anesthesia, intubation, lidocaine


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