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      Review article: the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

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          Abstract

          In this review, we focus on the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer and discuss free radicals and free radical-stimulated pathways as pharmacological targets for anti-IBD drugs. We also suggest novel anti-oxidative agents, which may become effective and less-toxic alternatives in IBD and colitis-associated colorectal cancer treatment. A Medline search was performed to identify relevant bibliography using search terms including: ‘free radicals,’ ‘antioxidants,’ ‘oxidative stress,’ ‘colon cancer,’ ‘ulcerative colitis,’ ‘Crohn’s disease,’ ‘inflammatory bowel disease.’ Several therapeutics commonly used in IBD treatment, among which are immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and anti-TNF-α antibodies, could also affect the IBD progression by interfering with cellular oxidative stress and cytokine production. Experimental data shows that these drugs may effectively scavenge free radicals, increase anti-oxidative capacity of cells, influence multiple signalling pathways, e.g. MAPK and NF-kB, and inhibit pro-oxidative enzyme and cytokine concentration. However, their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effectiveness still needs further investigation. A highly specific antioxidative activity may be important for the clinical treatment and relapse of IBD. In the future, a combination of currently used pharmaceutics, together with natural and synthetic anti-oxidative compounds, like lipoic acid or curcumine, could be taken into account in the design of novel anti-IBD therapies.

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          Most cited references 137

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          Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase.

          The Sod2 gene for Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an intramitochondrial free radical scavenging enzyme that is the first line of defense against superoxide produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, was inactivated by homologous recombination. Homozygous mutant mice die within the first 10 days of life with a dilated cardiomyopathy, accumulation of lipid in liver and skeletal muscle, and metabolic acidosis. Cytochemical analysis revealed a severe reduction in succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) and aconitase (a TCA cycle enzyme) activities in the heart and, to a lesser extent, in other organs. These findings indicate that MnSOD is required for normal biological function of tissues by maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial enzymes susceptible to direct inactivation by superoxide.
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            Glutathione peroxidase 4 senses and translates oxidative stress into 12/15-lipoxygenase dependent- and AIF-mediated cell death.

            Oxidative stress in conjunction with glutathione depletion has been linked with various acute and chronic degenerative disorders, yet the molecular mechanisms have remained unclear. In contrast to the belief that oxygen radicals are detrimental to cells and tissues by unspecific oxidation of essential biomolecules, we now demonstrate that oxidative stress is sensed and transduced by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) into a-yet-unrecognized cell-death pathway. Inducible GPx4 inactivation in mice and cells revealed 12/15-lipoxygenase-derived lipid peroxidation as specific downstream event, triggering apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-mediated cell death. Cell death could be entirely prevented either by alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), 12/15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, or siRNA-mediated AIF silencing. Accordingly, 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient cells were highly resistant to glutathione depletion. Neuron-specific GPx4 depletion caused neurodegeneration in vivo and ex vivo, highlighting the importance of this pathway in neuronal cells. Since oxidative stress is common in the etiology of many human disorders, the identified pathway reveals promising targets for future therapies.
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              The p38 signal transduction pathway: activation and function.

              The p38 signalling transduction pathway, a Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, plays an essential role in regulating many cellular processes including inflammation, cell differentiation, cell growth and death. Activation of p38 often through extracellular stimuli such as bacterial pathogens and cytokines, mediates signal transduction into the nucleus to turn on the responsive genes. p38 also transduces signals to other cellular components to execute different cellular responses. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the major components of the p38 signalling transduction pathway and highlight the targets of this pathway and the physiological function of the p38 activation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48-42-2725707 , jfichna@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol
                Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol
                Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0028-1298
                1432-1912
                6 May 2014
                6 May 2014
                2014
                : 387
                : 605-620
                Affiliations
                Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Mazowiecka 6/8, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
                Article
                985
                10.1007/s00210-014-0985-1
                4065336
                24798211
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

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