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      Housing type and risk of malaria among under-five children in Nigeria: evidence from the malaria indicator survey

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          Abstract

          Background

          Malaria remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among under-five (U5) children in Nigeria. Though different environmental factors have been assessed to influence the distribution and transmission of malaria vectors, there is a dearth of information on how housing type may influence malaria transmission among U5 children in Nigeria. This study assessed the relationship between housing type and malaria prevalence among U5s in Nigeria.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional analysis of the nationally representative 2015 Nigeria malaria indicator survey data was done. A representative sample of 8148 households in 329 clusters was selected for the survey. Children aged 6–59 months in the selected households were tested for anaemia and malaria using the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and the microscopy. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Chi square (χ 2) and logistic regression models at 5% level of significance.

          Results

          The odds of malaria infection was significantly higher among older children aged 24–59 months (aOR = 4.8, CI 2.13–10.99, p < 0.001), and children who lived in houses built completely with unimproved materials (aOR = 1.4, CI 1.08–1.80, p = 0.01). Other predictors of malaria infection include living in a rural area (aOR = 1.5, CI 1.25–1.91, p = 0.01), ever slept under a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (aOR = 1.1, CI 0.26–4.79, p = 0.89) and in a room not sprayed with insecticide (aOR = 1.2, CI 0.64–2.31, p = 0.56). Children who were malaria positive showed a higher prevalence of severe anaemia on RDT (87.6%) and Microscopy (67.4%) than those who were not anaemic (RDT = 31.6%, Microscopy = 12.9%).

          Conclusions

          Non-improved housing predicted malaria infection among U5s in Nigeria. Improved housing is a promising means to support a more integrated and sustainable approach to malaria prevention. Education of the Nigerian people on the role of improved housing on malaria protection and empowerment of the public to adopt improved housing as well as overall enlightenment on ways to prevent malaria infection can help to augment the current malaria control measures among U5 children.

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          Most cited references33

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          Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control?

          The use of pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vector control has increased dramatically in the past decade through the scale up of insecticide treated net distribution programmes and indoor residual spraying campaigns. Inevitably, the major malaria vectors have developed resistance to these insecticides and the resistance alleles are spreading at an exceptionally rapid rate throughout Africa. Although substantial progress has been made on understanding the causes of pyrethroid resistance, remarkably few studies have focused on the epidemiological impact of resistance on current malaria control activities. As we move into the malaria eradication era, it is vital that the implications of insecticide resistance are understood and strategies to mitigate these effects are implemented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa.

            Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa's malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa's 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 - a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed.
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              Texas Lifestyle Limits Transmission of Dengue Virus

              Urban dengue is common in most countries of the Americas, but has been rare in the United States for more than half a century. In 1999 we investigated an outbreak of the disease that affected Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Laredo, Texas, United States, contiguous cities that straddle the international border. The incidence of recent cases, indicated by immunoglobulin M antibody serosurvey, was higher in Nuevo Laredo, although the vector, Aedes aegypti, was more abundant in Laredo. Environmental factors that affect contact with mosquitoes, such as air-conditioning and human behavior, appear to account for this paradox. We conclude that the low prevalence of dengue in the United States is primarily due to economic, rather than climatic, factors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                folushom@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Malar J
                Malar. J
                Malaria Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2875
                28 August 2018
                28 August 2018
                2018
                : 17
                : 311
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Institute of Child Health, College of Medicine, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 5983, GRID grid.9582.6, Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, , University of Ibadan, ; Ibadan, Nigeria
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2645-9106
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9184-8258
                Article
                2463
                10.1186/s12936-018-2463-6
                6114872
                30153834
                b5e1fab5-a453-4aef-a7b8-8cb2225a97cd
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 1 June 2018
                : 23 August 2018
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                housing type,malaria,under-five,rapid diagnostic test,microscopy
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                housing type, malaria, under-five, rapid diagnostic test, microscopy

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