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      Edaravone Ameliorates Renal Warm Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Downregulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Rat Resuscitation Model

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          Abstract

          Background

          This study was conducted to explore whether the effect of edaravone (5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol3-one, EDR) can ameliorate renal warm ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its downstream effector after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a rat model.

          Methods

          The rats (n=10) experienced anaesthesia and intubation followed by no CA inducement were defined as the Sham group. Transoesophageal alternating current stimulation was employed to establish 8 min of CA followed by conventional CPR for a resuscitation model. The rats with successful restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) randomly received EDR (3 mg/kg, EDR group, n=10) or equal volume normal saline solution (the NS group, n=10). At 24 hr after ROSC, serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and cystatin-C (Cys-C) levels were determined and the protein level of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), Bax/Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were detected by Western blot method.

          Results

          At 24 hrs after ROSC, SCR, BUN and Cys-C were obviously increased and the proteins expression, including GRP78, CHOP and p-ERK1/2, cleaved-caspase 3 Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, were significantly upregulated in the NS group compared with the Sham group (p<0.05). The remarkable improvement of these adverse outcomes was observed in the EDR group (p<0.05).

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, we found that EDR ameliorates renal warm IRI by downregulating ERS and its downstream effectors in a rat AKI model evoked by CA/CPR. These data may provide evidence for future therapeutic benefits of EDR against AKI induced by CA/CPR.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Graphene-based nanomaterials for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

          Nanomaterials offer interesting physicochemical and biological properties for biomedical applications due to their small size, large surface area and ability to interface/interact with the cells/tissues. Graphene-based nanomaterials are fast emerging as "two-dimensional wonder materials" due to their unique structure and excellent mechanical, optical and electrical properties and have been exploited in electronics and other fields. Emerging trends show that their exceptional properties can be exploited for biomedical applications, especially in drug delivery and tissue engineering. This article presents a comprehensive review of various types and properties of graphene family nanomaterials. We further highlight how these properties are being exploited for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.
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              Delayed graft function is a form of acute renal failure resulting in post-transplantation oliguria, increased allograft immunogenicity and risk of acute rejection episodes, and decreased long-term survival. Factors related to the donor and prerenal, renal, or postrenal transplant factors related to the recipient can contribute to this condition. From experimental studies, we have learnt that both ischaemia and reinstitution of blood flow in ischaemically damaged kidneys after hypothermic preservation activate a complex sequence of events that sustain renal injury and play a pivotal part in the development of delayed graft function. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury has contributed to the development of strategies to decrease the rate of delayed graft function, focusing on donor management, organ procurement and preservation techniques, recipient fluid management, and pharmacological agents (vasodilators, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents). Several new drugs show promise in animal studies in preventing or ameliorating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and possibly delayed graft function, but definitive clinical trials are lacking. The goal of monotherapy for the prevention or treatment of is perhaps unattainable, and multidrug approaches or single drug targeting multiple signals will be the next step to reduce post-transplantation injury and delayed graft function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                15 January 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 175-183
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University , Nanning, Guangxi 530007, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Meng-Hua ChenDepartment of Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University , 166 Daxuedong Road, Nanning, Guangxi530007, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 771 327 7186 Email cmhnn@sina.com
                Article
                211906
                10.2147/DDDT.S211906
                6970244
                © 2020 Fu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 66, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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