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      Estrogen-related mechanisms in sex differences of hypertension and target organ damage


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          Hypertension (HTN) is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events, target organ damage (TOD), premature death and disability worldwide. The pathophysiology of HTN is complex and influenced by many factors including biological sex. Studies show that the prevalence of HTN is higher among adults aged 60 and over, highlighting the increase of HTN after menopause in women. Estrogen (E2) plays an important role in the development of systemic HTN and TOD, exerting several modulatory effects. The influence of E2 leads to alterations in mechanisms regulating the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, body mass, oxidative stress, endothelial function and salt sensitivity; all associated with a crucial inflammatory state and influenced by genetic factors, ultimately resulting in cardiac, vascular and renal damage in HTN. In the present article, we discuss the role of E2 in mechanisms accounting for the development of HTN and TOD in a sex-specific manner. The identification of targets with therapeutic potential would contribute to the development of more efficient treatments according to individual needs.

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          Arterial and cardiac aging: major shareholders in cardiovascular disease enterprises: Part I: aging arteries: a "set up" for vascular disease.

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            The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society.

            The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence. The Panel's recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees.Hormone therapy (HT) remains the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and has been shown to prevent bone loss and fracture. The risks of HT differ depending on type, dose, duration of use, route of administration, timing of initiation, and whether a progestogen is used. Treatment should be individualized to identify the most appropriate HT type, dose, formulation, route of administration, and duration of use, using the best available evidence to maximize benefits and minimize risks, with periodic reevaluation of the benefits and risks of continuing or discontinuing HT.For women aged younger than 60 years or who are within 10 years of menopause onset and have no contraindications, the benefit-risk ratio is most favorable for treatment of bothersome VMS and for those at elevated risk for bone loss or fracture. For women who initiate HT more than 10 or 20 years from menopause onset or are aged 60 years or older, the benefit-risk ratio appears less favorable because of the greater absolute risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and dementia. Longer durations of therapy should be for documented indications such as persistent VMS or bone loss, with shared decision making and periodic reevaluation. For bothersome GSM symptoms not relieved with over-the-counter therapies and without indications for use of systemic HT, low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy or other therapies are recommended.This NAMS position statement has been endorsed by Academy of Women's Health, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Association of Nurse Practitioners, American Medical Women's Association, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asociación Mexicana para el Estudio del Climaterio, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, Australasian Menopause Society, Chinese Menopause Society, Colegio Mexicano de Especialistas en Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Czech Menopause and Andropause Society, Dominican Menopause Society, European Menopause and Andropause Society, German Menopause Society, Groupe d'études de la ménopause et du vieillissement Hormonal, HealthyWomen, Indian Menopause Society, International Menopause Society, International Osteoporosis Foundation, International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health, Israeli Menopause Society, Japan Society of Menopause and Women's Health, Korean Society of Menopause, Menopause Research Society of Singapore, National Association of Nurse Practitioners in Women's Health, SOBRAC and FEBRASGO, SIGMA Canadian Menopause Society, Società Italiana della Menopausa, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, South African Menopause Society, Taiwanese Menopause Society, and the Thai Menopause Society. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the value of this clinical document as an educational tool, June 2017. The British Menopause Society supports this Position Statement.
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              Changes in proinflammatory cytokine activity after menopause.

              There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that the decline in ovarian function with menopause is associated with spontaneous increases in proinflammatory cytokines. The cytokines that have obtained the most attention are IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The exact mechanisms by which estrogen interferes with cytokine activity are still incompletely known but may potentially include interactions of the ER with other transcription factors, modulation of nitric oxide activity, antioxidative effects, plasma membrane actions, and changes in immune cell function. Experimental and clinical studies strongly support a link between the increased state of proinflammatory cytokine activity and postmenopausal bone loss. Preliminary evidence suggests that these changes also might be relevant to vascular homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. Better knowledge of the mechanisms and the time course of these interactions may open new avenues for the prevention and treatment of some of the most prevalent and important disorders in postmenopausal women.

                Author and article information

                Biol Sex Differ
                Biol Sex Differ
                Biology of Sex Differences
                BioMed Central (London )
                1 June 2020
                1 June 2020
                : 11
                : 31
                [1 ]GRID grid.4563.4, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8868, Cell Signalling Research Group, School of Life Sciences, , University of Nottingham, ; Nottingham, UK
                [2 ]Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.452396.f, ISNI 0000 0004 5937 5237, DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 14 January 2020
                : 4 May 2020
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Human biology
                blood pressure,cardiovascular,heart,sex hormone,vasculature
                Human biology
                blood pressure, cardiovascular, heart, sex hormone, vasculature


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