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      Oxygen Electrochemistry as a Cornerstone for Sustainable Energy Conversion

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      Angewandte Chemie International Edition

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          A perovskite oxide optimized for oxygen evolution catalysis from molecular orbital principles.

          The efficiency of many energy storage technologies, such as rechargeable metal-air batteries and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We found that Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) (BSCF) catalyzes the OER with intrinsic activity that is at least an order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art iridium oxide catalyst in alkaline media. The high activity of BSCF was predicted from a design principle established by systematic examination of more than 10 transition metal oxides, which showed that the intrinsic OER activity exhibits a volcano-shaped dependence on the occupancy of the 3d electron with an e(g) symmetry of surface transition metal cations in an oxide. The peak OER activity was predicted to be at an e(g) occupancy close to unity, with high covalency of transition metal-oxygen bonds.
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            High-performance electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction derived from polyaniline, iron, and cobalt.

            The prohibitive cost of platinum for catalyzing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has hampered the widespread use of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We describe a family of non-precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications, possibly including automotive power. The approach uses polyaniline as a precursor to a carbon-nitrogen template for high-temperature synthesis of catalysts incorporating iron and cobalt. The most active materials in the group catalyze the ORR at potentials within ~60 millivolts of that delivered by state-of-the-art carbon-supported platinum, combining their high activity with remarkable performance stability for non-precious metal catalysts (700 hours at a fuel cell voltage of 0.4 volts) as well as excellent four-electron selectivity (hydrogen peroxide yield <1.0%).
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              Activity benchmarks and requirements for Pt, Pt-alloy, and non-Pt oxygen reduction catalysts for PEMFCs

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angewandte Chemie International Edition
                Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                14337851
                January 03 2014
                January 03 2014
                : 53
                : 1
                : 102-121
                Article
                10.1002/anie.201306588
                © 2014
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