Abstract. We present a new and improved version (V4.0) of the NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. This version incorporates the most salient improvements for OMI NO2 products suggested by expert users and enhances the NO2 data quality in several ways through improvements to the air mass factors (AMFs) used in the retrieval algorithm. The algorithm is based on the geometry-dependent surface Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (GLER) operational product that is available on an OMI pixel basis. GLER is calculated using the vector linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT) model, which uses as input high-resolution bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) information from NASA's Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments over land and the wind-dependent Cox–Munk wave-facet slope distribution over water, the latter with a contribution from the water-leaving radiance. The GLER combined with consistently retrieved oxygen dimer (O2–O2) absorption-based effective cloud fraction (ECF) and optical centroid pressure (OCP) provide improved information to the new NO2 AMF calculations. The new AMFs increase the retrieved tropospheric NO2 by up to 50 % in highly polluted areas; these differences arise from both cloud and surface BRDF effects as well as biases between the new MODIS-based and previously used OMI-based climatological surface reflectance data sets. We quantitatively evaluate the new NO2 product using independent observations from ground-based and airborne instruments. The new V4.0 data and relevant explanatory documentation are publicly available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/OMNO2_V003/summary/, last access: 8 November 2020), and we encourage their use over previous versions of OMI NO2 products.