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      A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

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          Abstract

          The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Mating systems of blood-feeding flies.

           Boaz Yuval (2005)
          The mating system of each species is a unique, dynamic suite of interactions between the sexes. In this review I describe these interactions in the families of flies that contain blood-feeding species. A transition from the aerial swarm, with rapid copulae and no direct female choice, to substrate-based systems with lengthy copulae and opportunities for female choice is evident at both a phylogenetic scale and within nematoceran families under specific ecological conditions. Female monogamy is associated with the former, polyandry with the latter. I suggest that the intensity of sexual selection operating on males in systems where the probability of mating is low has favored male ability to control female receptivity. Reproductive success of males is universally correlated to successful foraging for sugar or blood and (in some species and ecological conditions) to body size. Understanding the ecological basis of the mating systems of these flies will help formulate integrative, sustainable, and biologically lucid approaches for their control.
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            Early Eocene warming events and the timing of terrestrial faunal exchange between India and Asia

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              Fossil Behavior Compendium

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                04 October 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Steinmann-Institut, Abteilung Paläontologie , Nussallee 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany
                [2 ]University of Gdańsk, Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology , Wita Stwosza 59, 80- 308 Gdańsk, Poland
                [3 ]Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Zentrum für Molekulare Biodiversitätsforschung , Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany
                [4 ]Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences , 53 University Road, Lucknow, India
                [5 ]Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institut für Werkstoffforschung , Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
                [6 ]University Museum of Bergen, Department of Natural History, P.O. Box 7800, University of Bergen , 5040 Bergen, Norway
                [7 ]Universität Kassel, Institut für Biologie, Fachgebiet Limnologie , Heinrich-Plett-Straße 40, 34132 Kassel-Oberzwehren, Germany
                Author notes
                Article
                srep34352
                10.1038/srep34352
                5048152
                27698490
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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