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      Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A Novel Approach to Simultaneous Acquisition of Multiple ERPs


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          The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: “Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic” (ANGEL), for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs)—the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300, and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of 10 neurocognitive variables over the course of three “game” levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs. response-inhibition; responses to easy vs. difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs. ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools) that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

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          Event-related potentials in clinical research: guidelines for eliciting, recording, and quantifying mismatch negativity, P300, and N400.

          This paper describes recommended methods for the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in clinical research and reviews applications to a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Techniques are presented for eliciting, recording, and quantifying three major cognitive components with confirmed clinical utility: mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and N400. Also highlighted are applications of each of the components as methods of investigating central nervous system pathology. The guidelines are intended to assist investigators who use ERPs in clinical research, in an effort to provide clear and concise recommendations and thereby to standardize methodology and facilitate comparability of data across laboratories.
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            Dysfunctional long-range coordination of neural activity during Gestalt perception in schizophrenia.

            Recent theoretical and empirical research on schizophrenia converges on the notion that core aspects of the pathophysiology of the disorder may arise from a dysfunction in the coordination of distributed neural activity. Synchronization of neural responses in the beta-band (15-30 Hz) and gamma-band range (30-80 Hz) has been implicated as a possible neural substrate for dysfunctional coordination in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) activity in 19 patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, edition IV criteria, diagnosis of schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects during a Gestalt perception task. EEG data were analyzed for phase synchrony and induced spectral power as an index of neural synchronization. Schizophrenia patients were impaired significantly in the detection of images that required the grouping of stimulus elements into coherent object representations. This deficit was accompanied by longer reaction times in schizophrenia patients. Deficits in Gestalt perception in schizophrenia patients were associated with reduced phase synchrony in the beta-band (20-30 Hz), whereas induced spectral power in the gamma-band (40-70 Hz) was mainly intact. Our findings suggest that schizophrenia patients are impaired in the long-range synchronization of neural responses, which may reflect a core deficit in the coordination of neural activity and underlie the specific cognitive dysfunctions associated with the disorder.
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              ERP evidence for the speed of face categorization in the human brain: Disentangling the contribution of low-level visual cues from face perception.

              How fast are visual stimuli categorized as faces by the human brain? Because of their high temporal resolution and the possibility to record simultaneously from the whole brain, electromagnetic scalp measurements should be the ideal method to clarify this issue. However, this question remains debated, with studies reporting face-sensitive responses varying from 50 ms to 200 ms following stimulus onset. Here we disentangle the contribution of the information associated with the phenomenological experience of a face (phase) from low-level visual cues (amplitude spectrum, color) in accounting for early face-sensitivity in the human brain. Pictures of faces and of a category of familiar objects (cars), as well as their phase-scrambled versions, were presented to fifteen human participants tested with high-density (128 channels) EEG. We replicated an early face-sensitivity - larger response to pictures of faces than cars - at the level of the occipital event-related potential (ERP) P1 (80- ). However, a similar larger P1 to phase-scrambled faces than phase-scrambled cars was also found. In contrast, the occipito-temporal N170 was much larger in amplitude for pictures of intact faces than cars, especially in the right hemisphere, while the small N170 elicited by phase-scrambled stimuli did not differ for faces and cars. These findings show that sensitivity to faces on the visual evoked potentials P1 and N1 (N170) is functionally dissociated: the P1 face-sensitivity is driven by low-level visual cues while the N1 (or N170) face-sensitivity reflects the perception of a face. Altogether, these observations indicate that the earliest access to a high-level face representation, that is, a face percept, does not precede the N170 onset in the human brain. Furthermore, they allow resolving apparent discrepancies between the timing of rapid human saccades towards faces and the early activation of high-level facial representations as shown by electrophysiological studies in the primate brain. More generally, they put strong constraints on the interpretation of early (before 100 ms) face-sensitive effects in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 January 2016
                : 10
                : 1
                [1] 1Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bengaluru, India
                [2] 2Multimodal Brain Image Analysis Laboratory, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bengaluru, India
                [3] 3Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bengaluru, India
                [4] 4Department of Clinical Neurosciences, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bengaluru, India
                [5] 5Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bengaluru, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ming Hsu, University of California, Berkeley, USA

                Reviewed by: Lusha Zhu, Peking University, China; Mark John James Edwards, University College London, UK

                *Correspondence: Bindu M. Kutty bindu.nimhans@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Decision Neuroscience, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work and may be considered as joint first authors.

                Copyright © 2016 Nair, Sasidharan, John, Mehrotra and Kutty.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 15 September 2015
                : 04 January 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 14, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 23, Pages: 14, Words: 7535
                Funded by: Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology 10.13039/501100001409
                Award ID: SR/CSI/63/2011
                Funded by: Indian Council of Medical Research 10.13039/501100001411
                Award ID: 3/1/3/37/Neuro/2013-NCD-I
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS)

                paradigm design,cognitive functions,decision making,simultaneous erps,p300
                paradigm design, cognitive functions, decision making, simultaneous erps, p300


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