The objective of the present study was to investigate the proximate composition, antiradical properties and hepatoprotective activity of three species of shellfish, Corbicula japonica, Spisula sachalinensis, and Anadara broughtonii, from the coastal areas of Far East Russia. Biologically active peptides such as taurine (3.74 g/100 g protein) and ornithine (2.12 g/100 g protein) have been found in the tissues of A. broughtonii. C. japonica contains a high amount of ornithine (5.57 g/100 g protein) and taurine (0.85 g/100 g protein). The maximum DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (36.0 µg ascorbic acid/g protein and 0.68 µmol/Trolox equiv/g protein, respectively) was determined for the tissue of C. japonica. The protein and peptide molecular weight distribution of the shellfish tissue water extracts was investigated using HPLC. It was found that the amount of low molecular weight proteins and peptides were significantly and positively correlated with radical scavenging activity (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.96), while the amount of high molecular weight proteins negatively correlated with radical scavenging activity (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = −0.86). Hepatoprotective activity, measured by the survival rate of HepG2 hepatocytes after cotreatment with t-BHP, was detected for C. japonica. The highest protection (95.3 ± 2.4%) was achieved by the cold water extract of C. japonica at the concentration of 200 mg/mL. Moreover, oral administration of hot water extract of C. japonica to rats before the treatment with CCl 4 exhibited a markedly protective effect by lowering serum levels of ALT and AST, inhibiting the changes in biochemical parameters of functional state of rat liver, including MDA, SOD, GSH and GST.