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      Bactericidal Effect of Entomopathogenic Bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila Against Xanthomonas citri Reduces Citrus Canker Disease Severity

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          The bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila has been recognized as an exceptional species within the Pseudomonas genus, capable of naturally infecting and killing insects from at least three different orders. P. entomophila ingestion leads to irreversible gut damage resulting from a global blockage of translation, which impairs both immune and tissue repair systems in the insect intestine. In this study we isolated a P. entomophila bacterial strain from soil samples which displayed a strong activity against Xanthomonas citri subsp, citri ( Xcc), the etiological agent of citrus canker disease. The antagonism potential of isolated bacteria against Xcc and its ability to reduce citrus canker severity was assessed both ex planta and in planta. Our findings show that pathogenicity assays in Citrus x limonia by pressure infiltration and spray with a mixture of P. entomophila and Xcc leaded to a significant reduction in the number of canker lesions in high susceptible citrus leaves, at 21 days post-infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of antibacterial activity of P. entomophila against a phytopathogenic bacterium. Collective action of P. entomophila factors such as diketopiperazine production and the type 6 secretion system (T6SS) may be involved in this type of biological control of citrus canker. The results suggest that the P. entomophila strain could be a promising biocontrol agent acting directly against Xcc.

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          Most cited references 43

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

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            16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study.

            A set of oligonucleotide primers capable of initiating enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction) on a phylogenetically and taxonomically wide range of bacteria is described along with methods for their use and examples. One pair of primers is capable of amplifying nearly full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from many bacterial genera; the additional primers are useful for various exceptional sequences. Methods for purification of amplified material, direct sequencing, cloning, sequencing, and transcription are outlined. An obligate intracellular parasite of bovine erythrocytes, Anaplasma marginale, is used as an example; its 16S rDNA was amplified, cloned, sequenced, and phylogenetically placed. Anaplasmas are related to the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia. In addition, 16S rDNAs from several species were readily amplified from material found in lyophilized ampoules from the American Type Culture Collection. By use of this method, the phylogenetic study of extremely fastidious or highly pathogenic bacterial species can be carried out without the need to culture them. In theory, any gene segment for which polymerase chain reaction primer design is possible can be derived from a readily obtainable lyophilized bacterial culture.
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              Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking.

              The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS;, an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations. We also introduce the concept of 'living data' through continuous reanalysis of deposited data.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 June 2020
                : 11
                1Post Graduate Program in Agricultural and Livestock Microbiology, School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP) , Jaboticabal, Brazil
                2Faculty of Exact, Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Research Group CIBAS, Universidad de Santander (UDES) , Bucaramanga, Colombia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Suha Jabaji, McGill University, Canada

                Reviewed by: Yong-Qiang He, Guangxi University, China; Raquel Campos-Herrera, Institute of Vine and Wine Sciences (ICVV), Spain

                *Correspondence: Sonia Villamizar, soniavc1601@

                This article was submitted to Plant Microbe Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2020 Villamizar, Ferro, Caicedo and Alves.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 11, Words: 0
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