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      PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 supports linear electron flow to oxidize photosystem I

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2

      Physiologia Plantarum

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 55

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          The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence

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            Chlorophyll fluorescence: a probe of photosynthesis in vivo.

            The use of chlorophyll fluorescence to monitor photosynthetic performance in algae and plants is now widespread. This review examines how fluorescence parameters can be used to evaluate changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, linear electron flux, and CO(2) assimilation in vivo, and outlines the theoretical bases for the use of specific fluorescence parameters. Although fluorescence parameters can be measured easily, many potential problems may arise when they are applied to predict changes in photosynthetic performance. In particular, consideration is given to problems associated with accurate estimation of the PSII operating efficiency measured by fluorescence and its relationship with the rates of linear electron flux and CO(2) assimilation. The roles of photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching in the determination of changes in PSII operating efficiency are examined. Finally, applications of fluorescence imaging to studies of photosynthetic heterogeneity and the rapid screening of large numbers of plants for perturbations in photosynthesis and associated metabolism are considered.
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              PGR5 is involved in cyclic electron flow around photosystem I and is essential for photoprotection in Arabidopsis.

              During photosynthesis, plants must control the utilization of light energy in order to avoid photoinhibition. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant, pgr5 (proton gradient regulation), in which downregulation of photosystem II photochemistry in response to intense light was impaired. PGR5 encodes a novel thylakoid membrane protein that is involved in the transfer of electrons from ferredoxin to plastoquinone. This alternative electron transfer pathway, whose molecular identity has long been unclear, is known to function in vivo in cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. We propose that the PGR5 pathway contributes to the generation of a Delta(pH) that induces thermal dissipation when Calvin cycle activity is reduced. Under these conditions, the PGR5 pathway also functions to limit the overreduction of the acceptor side of photosystem I, thus preventing photosystem I photoinhibition.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School of Agricultural Science; Kobe University; Kobe Japan
                [2 ]Core Research for Environmental Science and Technology; Japan Science and Technology Agency; Tokyo Japan
                Journal
                Physiologia Plantarum
                Physiol Plantarum
                Wiley
                00319317
                November 2018
                November 2018
                July 19 2018
                : 164
                : 3
                : 337-348
                10.1111/ppl.12723
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#am

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