11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Two Birds with One Stone: Possible Dual-Role of Oxytocin in the Treatment of Diabetes and Osteoporosis

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Oxytocin (OT), a hormone most commonly associated with labor and lactation, may have a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions, which makes OT and its receptor potential targets for drug therapy. In this review, we highlight the newly discovered metabolic role of OT in diabetes and its complication, such as diabetic osteopathy. OT may have positive metabolic effects; this is based on the change in glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity. It may modify glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity both through direct and indirect effects. It may also cause regenerative changes in diabetic pancreatic islet cells. Moreover, it has an anabolic effect on the bone biology. So, the activation of the OT receptor pathway by infusion of OT, OT analogs, or OT agonists may represent a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes and some of its complications, including diabetic osteopathy.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 52

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: many differences, few similarities.

            Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Apoptosis is probably the main form of beta-cell death in both forms of the disease. It has been suggested that the mechanisms leading to nutrient- and cytokine-induced beta-cell death in type 2 and type 1 diabetes, respectively, share the activation of a final common pathway involving interleukin (IL)-1beta, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and Fas. We review herein the similarities and differences between the mechanisms of beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In the insulitis lesion in type 1 diabetes, invading immune cells produce cytokines, such as IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. IL-1beta and/or TNF-alpha plus IFN-gamma induce beta-cell apoptosis via the activation of beta-cell gene networks under the control of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT-1. NF-kappaB activation leads to production of nitric oxide (NO) and chemokines and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium. The execution of beta-cell death occurs through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, via triggering of ER stress and by the release of mitochondrial death signals. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) causes beta-cell dysfunction and may induce beta-cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes. Exposure to high glucose has dual effects, triggering initially "glucose hypersensitization" and later apoptosis, via different mechanisms. High glucose, however, does not induce or activate IL-1beta, NF-kappaB, or inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat or human beta-cells in vitro or in vivo in Psammomys obesus. FFAs may cause beta-cell apoptosis via ER stress, which is NF-kappaB and NO independent. Thus, cytokines and nutrients trigger beta-cell death by fundamentally different mechanisms, namely an NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism that culminates in caspase-3 activation for cytokines and an NF-kappaB-independent mechanism for nutrients. This argues against a unifying hypothesis for the mechanisms of beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and suggests that different approaches will be required to prevent beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted?

              Research on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of oxytocin (OT), as well as on its possible therapeutic applications, has intensified in the past decade. Accurate determination of peripheral OT levels is essential to reach meaningful conclusions and to motivate, support and inform clinical interventions. Different, but concordant, methods for measuring plasma OT have been developed over the past four decades, but since 2004 several commercially available methods have been favored in research with humans. Evaluation of these methods reveals that they lack reliability when used on unextracted samples of human fluids, and that they tag molecules in addition to OT, yielding estimates that are wildly discrepant with an extensive body of earlier findings that were obtained using methods that are well validated, but more laborious. An accurate, specific, and readily available method for measuring OT that can be adopted as the standard in the field is urgently needed for advances in our understanding of OT's roles in cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                10 August 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1Human Physiology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University , Alexandria, Egypt
                2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University , Alexandria, Egypt
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ez-Zoubir Amri, CNRS University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France

                Reviewed by: Peter J. Toth, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, USA; Françoise Rohner-Jeanrenaud, University of Geneva, Switzerland

                *Correspondence: Seham Elabd, Department of Human Physiology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, 165, Horreya Avenue, Hadara, Alexandria, Egypt, seham.elabd@ 123456alex-mri.edu.eg

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Endocrinology of Aging, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2015.00121
                4530313
                Copyright © 2015 Elabd and Sabry.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 6, Words: 5224
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Mini Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article