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      –2518 A/G MCP-1 but not –403 G/A RANTES gene polymorphism is associated with enhanced risk of basal cell carcinoma

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          Polymorphic variants of MCP-1 and RANTES genes and their protein serum levels have been implicated in the increased risk and severity of several malignancies. However, the subject has not been explored in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients so far.


          To investigate the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (–2518 A/G) and RANTES (–403 G/A) polymorphism and risk and clinical course of BCC.

          Material and methods

          The study group consisted of 150 unrelated patients with BCC and 140 healthy, unrelated, age- and sex-matched volunteers. The polymorphisms were analysed using the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS-PCR) and single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR). Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA.


          The presence of the MCP-1 –2518 GG genotype was statistically more frequent in BCC patients and it increased the risk of BCC (OR = 2.63, p = 0.003). Genotype –330 GG was statistically more common in patients with less advanced tumours (OR = 2.8, p = 0.017). Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 serum level was statistically higher with GG genotype. In the BCC group MCP-1 serum levels were decreased. Neither polymorphic variants of RANTES nor the chemokine serum concentration differed significantly between the study groups.


          These findings suggest that –2518 A/G MCP-1 polymorphism may be involved in BCC pathogenesis.

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          Most cited references 37

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            Active, but dysfunctional, immune responses in patients with cancer have been studied in several tumour types, but owing to the heterogeneity of cancer theories of common reaction mechanisms seem to be obsolete. In this Review of published clinical studies of patients with cancer, expression and interplay of the following cytokines are examined: interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 12, interleukin 18, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), interferon-γ, HLA-DR, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Clinical data were analysed in a non-quantitative descriptive manner and interpreted with regard to experimentally established physiological cytokine interactions. The clinical cytokine pattern that emerged suggests that simultaneous immunostimulation and immunosuppression occur in patients with cancer, with increased concentrations of the cytokines MIF, TNFα, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 18, and TGFβ. This specific cytokine pattern seems to have a prognostic effect, since high interleukin 6 or interleukin 10 serum concentrations are associated with negative prognoses in independent cancer types. Although immunostimulatory cytokines are involved in local cancer-associated inflammation, cancer cells seem to be protected from immunological eradication by cytokine-mediated local immunosuppression and a resulting defect of the interleukin 12-interferon-γ-HLA-DR axis. Cytokines produced by tumours might have a pivotal role in this defect. A working hypothesis is that the cancer-specific and histology-independent uniform cytokine cascade is one of the manifestations of the underlying paraneoplastic systemic disease, and this hypothesis links the stage of cancer with both the functional status of the immune system and the patient's prognosis. Neutralisation of this cytokine pattern could offer novel and so far unexploited treatment approaches for cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The tumor microenvironment is a complex framework, in which myeloid cells play important roles in sculpting cancer development from tumor initiation to metastasis. Immune cells are key participants of the tumor microenvironment where they can promote or inhibit cancer formation and development. Plasticity is a widely accepted hallmark of myeloid cells and in particular of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. It includes the ability to display a wide spectrum of activation states in response to distinct signals and classical M1 or alternative M2 macrophages represent a paradigm of this feature. Neutrophils have long been viewed as terminally differentiated effector cells, playing a major role during the acute phase of inflammation and resistance against microbes. Recent evidence questioned this limited point of view, indicating that neutrophils can interact with distinct cell populations and produce a wide number of cytokines and effector molecules. Therefore, macrophages and neutrophils are both integrated in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses in various inflammatory situations, including cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Postepy Dermatol Alergol
                Postepy Dermatol Alergol
                Advances in Dermatology and Allergology/Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
                Termedia Publishing House
                21 October 2016
                October 2016
                : 33
                : 5
                : 381-385
                [1 ]Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Pathology and Experimental Rheumatology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Michal Sobjanek MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, 7 Debinki St, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland. phone: +48 58 349 25 83, fax: +48 58 349 25 86. e-mail: sobjanek@
                Copyright: © 2016 Termedia Sp. z o.o.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

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