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      Gliotoxin Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia after Vascular Injury in Rats

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          Neointima formation participates in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are initial responses to vascular injury. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of gliotoxin, an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, on migration and proliferation of cultured rat VSMC and neointimal formation in injured rat vessels. In cultured VSMC, gliotoxin inhibited the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in response to inflammatory stimuli. In addition, gliotoxin inhibited VSMC migration and proliferation in response to platelet-derived growth factor-BB. This was associated with a rapid rearrangement of the F-actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, gliotoxin inhibited endothelial cell nuclear translocation of p65, cell surface expression of adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, and monocytic cell adhesion to a cytokine-activated endothelial monolayer. In the rat carotid artery balloon catheter injury model, the systemic administration of gliotoxin for 10 days decreased neointimal hyperplasia and luminal stenosis by up to 90% and decreased the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the vessel wall by up to 70%, depending on the dose. These observations suggest that gliotoxin favorably regulates the response to vascular injury through actions on VSMC. However, further studies evaluating the therapeutic benefit of gliotoxin in restenosis after balloon angioplasty are required.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease

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            Activated transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B is present in the atherosclerotic lesion.

            Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB)/Rel transcription factors play an important role in the inducible regulation of a variety of genes involved in the inflammatory and proliferative responses of cells. The present study was designed to elucidate the implication of NF-kappaB/Rel in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Activation of the dimeric NF-kappaB complex is regulated at a posttranslational level and requires the release of the inhibitor protein IkappaB. The newly developed mAb alpha-p65mAb recognizes the IkappaB binding region on the p65 (RelA) DNA binding subunit and therefore selectively reacts with p65 in activated NF-kappaB. Using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques, activated NF-kappaB was detected in the fibrotic-thickened intima/media and atheromatous areas of the atherosclerotic lesion. Activation of NF-kappaB was identified in smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Little or no activated NF-kappaB was detected in vessels lacking atherosclerosis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and colocalization of activated NF-kappaB with NF-kappaB target gene expression suggest functional implications for this transcription factor in the atherosclerotic lesion. This study demonstrates the presence of activated NF-kappaB in human atherosclerotic tissue for the first time. Atherosclerosis, characterized by features of chronic inflammation and proliferative processes, may be a paradigm for the involvement of NF-kappaB/Rel in chronic inflammatory disease.
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              The epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class of fungal toxins: distribution, mode of action, functions and biosynthesis.

              Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are toxic secondary metabolites made only by fungi. The best-known ETP is gliotoxin, which appears to be a virulence factor associated with invasive aspergillosis of immunocompromised patients. The toxicity of ETPs is due to the presence of a disulphide bridge, which can inactivate proteins via reaction with thiol groups, and to the generation of reactive oxygen species by redox cycling. With the availability of complete fungal genome sequences and efficient gene-disruption techniques for fungi, approaches are now feasible to delineate biosynthetic pathways for ETPs and to gain insights into the evolution of such gene clusters.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                June 2009
                25 November 2008
                : 46
                : 4
                : 278-289
                Fundación Jiménez Díaz y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España
                176043 J Vasc Res 2009;46:278–289
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 65, Pages: 12
                Research Paper


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