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      Cross-cultural adaptation of the German Pain Solutions Questionnaire: an instrument to measure assimilative and accommodative coping in response to chronic pain

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          Abstract

          According to the dual process model of coping, assimilative or accommodative strategies can be applied to deal with aversive life situations. In people with chronic pain, the tenacious focus on achieving analgesia is often referred to as assimilative coping and associated with more disability and catastrophic thinking. In contrast, accommodative coping (accepting one’s pain and setting new goals) appears to have beneficial effects. To assess how people with chronic pain use these different coping strategies, questionnaires measuring these concepts are needed. Following international guidelines, a German version of the Pain Solutions Questionnaire (PaSol) was prepared. A sample of 165 participants with chronic low back pain (CLBP; 60% women; age 53 ± 8.4 years) filled in the questionnaire and measures for pain-related disability, affective distress, catastrophic thinking, and attention to pain. Item analyses, an exploratory factor analysis, and correlations with pain-related measures were calculated. In addition, data from 98 participants who received psychological treatment were examined to investigate the PaSol’s sensitivity to change. The exploratory factor analysis reproduced the original questionnaire’s four-factor structure. Internal consistencies for the subscales ranged from Cronbach’s α=0.72 to α =0.84. Mean item difficulties for the subscales ranged from p i=0.62 to p i=0.79. The highest correlations were found for Meaningfulness with catastrophic thinking ( r=−0.58) and affective distress ( r=−0.36). The PaSol subscale Meaningfulness predicted pain-related disability; the subscales Meaningfulness and Solving Pain predicted affective distress. Furthermore, the PaSol was found to be sensitive to detect changes over time. The German version of the PaSol is a reliable and valid instrument in the measurement of assimilative and accommodative coping strategies in people suffering from CLBP. It may provide a useful tool when examining temporal dynamics of the changing coping strategies in the transition from acute to chronic pain as well as during pain treatments.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Modeling the Effects of Perceptual Load: Saliency, Competitive Interactions, and Top-Down Biases

          A computational model of visual selective attention has been implemented to account for experimental findings on the Perceptual Load Theory (PLT) of attention. The model was designed based on existing neurophysiological findings on attentional processes with the objective to offer an explicit and biologically plausible formulation of PLT. Simulation results verified that the proposed model is capable of capturing the basic pattern of results that support the PLT as well as findings that are considered contradictory to the theory. Importantly, the model is able to reproduce the behavioral results from a dilution experiment, providing thus a way to reconcile PLT with the competing Dilution account. Overall, the model presents a novel account for explaining PLT effects on the basis of the low-level competitive interactions among neurons that represent visual input and the top-down signals that modulate neural activity. The implications of the model concerning the debate on the locus of selective attention as well as the origins of distractor interference in visual displays of varying load are discussed.
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            Preliminary validity study of the pain disability index.

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              Acceptance of chronic pain: component analysis and a revised assessment method.

              Acceptance of chronic pain entails that an individual reduce unsuccessful attempts to avoid or control pain and focus instead on participation in valued activities and the pursuit of personally relevant goals. Recent research suggests that pain-related acceptance leads to enhanced emotional and physical functioning in chronic pain patients above and beyond the influence of depression, pain intensity, and coping. In these studies, acceptance was measured using the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Preliminary analyses of the CPAQ have supported its psychometric properties. The present study sought to further refine the CPAQ by examining its factor structure and evaluating the relations of these factors to other indices of pain-related distress and disability. Although a previously demonstrated factor structure of the CPAQ was generally supported, only factors assessing (a) the degree to which one engaged in life activities regardless of the pain and (b) willingness to experience pain had adequate reliability and validity and were significantly related to the other measures of patient functioning. A revised version of the CPAQ is suggested.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                19 June 2017
                : 10
                : 1437-1446
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
                [2 ]Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Antonia Barke, Department for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University of Marburg, Gutenbergstraße 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany, Tel +49 6421 282 4045, Fax +49 6421 282 8904, Email abarke@ 123456gwdg.de
                Article
                jpr-10-1437
                10.2147/JPR.S130016
                5484560
                © 2017 Sielski et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                german, validation, coping, problem-solving, acceptance, back pain

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