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      Pharmacokinetics and Bioequivalence of Two Formulations of Valsartan 80 mg Capsules: A Randomized, Single Dose, 4-Period Crossover Study in Healthy Chinese Volunteers Under Fasting and Fed Conditions

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          To compare the bioequivalence of two formulations of valsartan (80 mg capsules) under fasting and fed conditions in healthy Chinese volunteers using a full-replicate study design.


          A total of 78 Subjects were randomly assigned to fasting cohort (n = 48) or fed cohort (n = 30). Each cohort includes 4 single-dose observation periods and 3-day washout periods. Blood samples were collected at designed time point. Plasma concentration of valsartan was analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. Noncompartmental analysis method was employed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. Based on the within-subject standard deviation (S WR) of the reference formulation, either reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE) or average bioequivalence (ABE) method was used to evaluate the bioequivalence of the two formulations.


          Under fasting conditions, the RSABE method was used to evaluate the bioequivalence of C max (S WR>0.294), while ABE method was used to evaluate the bioequivalence of AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞. The geometric mean ratio (GMR) of the test/reference for C max was 99.52%, and the 95% upper confidence bound was <0. For AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ comparisons, GMRs were 102.07% and 101.92%, and the 90% CIs of the test/reference were 96.28%–108.21%, 96.28%–107.88%, respectively. Under fed conditions, the S WR value of C max, AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ all exceeded the cutoff value of 0.294 and therefore, the RSABE method was used. The GMRs for C max, AUC 0-t and AUC 0-∞ were 98.78%, 103.33% and 103.08%, respectively, while the 95% upper confidence bound values were all <0. These results all met the bioequivalence criteria for highly variable drugs. All adverse events were mild and transient.


          In this study, the generic formulation of valsartan 80 mg capsule was considered to be bioequivalent to the reference product under both fasting and fed conditions, and satisfied the requirements for marketing in China.

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          Pharmacological profile of valsartan: a potent, orally active, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1-receptor subtype.

          1. The pharmacological profile of valsartan, (S)-N-valeryl-N-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]-methyl)-vali ne, a potent, highly selective, and orally active antagonist at the angiotensin II (AII) AT1-receptor, was studied in vitro and in vivo. 2. Valsartan competed with [125I]-AII at its specific binding sites in rat aortic smooth muscle cell membranes (AT1-receptor subtype) with a Ki of 2.38 nM, but was about 30,000 times less active in human myometrial membranes (AT2-receptor subtype). 3. In rabbit aortic rings incubated for 5 min with valsartan, at concentrations of 2, 20 and 200 nM, the concentration-response curve of AII was displaced to the right and the maximum response was reduced by 33%, 36% and 40%, respectively. Prolongation of the incubation time with valsartan to 1 h or 3 h, further reduced the maximum response by 48% or 59% (after 20 nM) and by 59% or 60% (after 200 nM) respectively. After 3 h incubation an apparent pKb value of 9.26 was calculated. Contractions induced by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or potassium chloride were not affected by valsartan. No agonistic effects were observed in the rabbit aorta at concentrations of valsartan up to 2 microM. 4. In bovine adrenal glomerulosa, valsartan inhibited AII-stimulated aldosterone release without affecting the maximum response (pA2 8.4). 5. In the pithed rat, oral administration of valsartan (10 mg kg-1) shifted the AII-induced pressor response curves to the right, without affecting responses induced by the electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow or by noradrenaline. Animals treated with valsartan 24 h before pithing also showed significant inhibition of the response to AII. 6. In conscious, two-kidney, one-clip renal hypertensive rats (2K1C), valsartan decreased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner after single i.v. or oral administration. The respective ED30 values were 0.06 mg kg-1 (i.v.) and 1.4 mg kg-1 (p.o.). The antihypertensive effect lasted for at least 24 h after either route of administration. After repeated oral administration for 4 days (3 and 10 mg kg-1 daily), in 2K1C renal hypertensive rats, systolic blood pressure was consistently decreased, but heart rate was not significantly affected. 7. In conscious, normotensive, sodium-depleted marmosets, valsartan decreased mean arterial pressure, measured by telemetry, after oral doses of 1-30 mg kg-1. The hypotensive effect persisted up to 12 h after 3 and 10 mg kg-1 and up to 24 h after 30 mg kg-1. 8. In sodium-depleted marmosets, the hypotensive effect of valsartan lasted longer than that of losartan(DuP 753). In renal hypertensive rats, both agents had a similar duration (24 h), but a different onset of action (valsartan at 1 h, losartan between 2 h and 24 h).9. These results demonstrate that valsartan is a potent, specific, highly selective antagonist of AII at theAT1-receptor subtype and does not possess agonistic activity. Furthermore, it is an efficacious, orally active, blood pressure-lowering agent in conscious renal hypertensive rats and in conscious normotensive,sodium-depleted primates.
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            A single LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of 14 antimalarial drugs and their metabolites in human plasma.

            Among the various determinants of treatment response, the achievement of sufficient blood levels is essential for curing malaria. For helping us at improving our current understanding of antimalarial drugs pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity, we have developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) requiring 200mul of plasma for the simultaneous determination of 14 antimalarial drugs and their metabolites which are the components of the current first-line combination treatments for malaria (artemether, artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, amodiaquine, N-desethyl-amodiaquine, lumefantrine, desbutyl-lumefantrine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, mefloquine, chloroquine, quinine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine). Plasma is purified by a combination of protein precipitation, evaporation and reconstitution in methanol/ammonium formate 20mM (pH 4.0) 1:1. Reverse-phase chromatographic separation of antimalarial drugs is obtained using a gradient elution of 20mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile both containing 0.5% formic acid, followed by rinsing and re-equilibration to the initial solvent composition up to 21min. Analyte quantification, using matrix-matched calibration samples, is performed by electro-spray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring detection in the positive mode. The method was validated according to FDA recommendations, including assessment of extraction yield, matrix effect variability, overall process efficiency, standard addition experiments as well as antimalarials short- and long-term stability in plasma. The reactivity of endoperoxide-containing antimalarials in the presence of hemolysis was tested both in vitro and on malaria patients samples. With this method, signal intensity of artemisinin decreased by about 20% in the presence of 0.2% hemolysed red-blood cells in plasma, whereas its derivatives were essentially not affected. The method is precise (inter-day CV%: 3.1-12.6%) and sensitive (lower limits of quantification 0.15-3.0 and 0.75-5ng/ml for basic/neutral antimalarials and artemisinin derivatives, respectively). This is the first broad-range LC-MS/MS assay covering the currently in-use antimalarials. It is an improvement over previous methods in terms of convenience (a single extraction procedure for 14 major antimalarials and metabolites reducing significantly the analytical time), sensitivity, selectivity and throughput. While its main limitation is investment costs for the equipment, plasma samples can be collected in the field and kept at 4 degrees C for up to 48h before storage at -80 degrees C. It is suited to detecting the presence of drug in subjects for screening purposes and quantifying drug exposure after treatment. It may contribute to filling the current knowledge gaps in the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics relationships of antimalarials and better define the therapeutic dose ranges in different patient populations.
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              Implementation of a reference-scaled average bioequivalence approach for highly variable generic drug products by the US Food and Drug Administration.

              Highly variable (HV) drugs are defined as those for which within-subject variability (%CV) in bioequivalence (BE) measures is 30% or greater. Because of this high variability, studies designed to show whether generic HV drugs are bioequivalent to their corresponding HV reference drugs may need to enroll large numbers of subjects even when the products have no significant mean differences. To avoid unnecessary human testing, the US Food and Drug Administration's Office of Generic Drugs developed a reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE) approach, whereby the BE acceptance limits are scaled to the variability of the reference product. For an acceptable RSABE study, an HV generic drug product must meet the scaled BE limit and a point estimate constraint. The approach has been implemented successfully. To date, the RSABE approach has supported four full approvals and one tentative approval of HV generic drug products.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                12 October 2020
                : 14
                : 4221-4230
                [1 ]Center Laboratory, Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Phase I Clinical Research & Quality Consistency Evaluation for Drugs , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Changzhou Siyao Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd , Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]ViaClinical Ltd , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yanmei Liu Center Laboratory, Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital , No. 966, Huaihai Road(M), Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-21-54030254 Email ymliu@shxh-centerlab.com
                © 2020 Wu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 13, References: 27, Pages: 10
                Funded by: Changzhou Siyao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd;
                This study was sponsored by Changzhou Siyao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Changzhou, China). And it did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The study sponsor had a role in study design, data analysis, and data interpretation.
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                valsartan, bioequivalence, replicate, pharmacokinetics, safety


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