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      Efficacy and safety of a vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial

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          The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score.

          Patients and methods

          The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4–6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag ®, or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally). The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events.


          Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits) in both vaginal pH ( P<0.05) and Nugent score ( P<0.05), and a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus between visit I and visits III and IV ( P<0.05). Molecular typing revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at visit III, and 47.5% at visit IV. There was no serious adverse event related to inVag administration during the study.


          The probiotic inVag is safe for administration to sustainably restore the healthy vaginal microbiota, as demonstrated by predominance of the Lactobacillus bacteria in vaginal microbiota.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria.

          Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are extremely rare causes of infection in humans, as are probiotics based on these organisms. This lack of pathogenicity extends across all age groups and to immunocompromised individuals. Strains used for new probiotics should be chosen from the commensal flora of humans and should not carry intrinsic resistance to antibiotics that would prevent treatment of a rare probiotic infection. Vigilance regarding the detection of possible rare cases of infection due to probiotics should be maintained, and isolates should be sent to reference centers for molecular characterization and confirmation.
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            Detection and identification of gastrointestinal Lactobacillus species by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and species-specific PCR primers.

            Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to detect the presence of Lactobacillus species in the stomach contents of mice. Lactobacillus isolates cultured from human and porcine gastrointestinal samples were identified to the species level by using a combination of DGGE and species-specific PCR primers that targeted 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region or 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identifications obtained by this approach were confirmed by sequencing the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene and by a BLAST search of the GenBank database.
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              Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

              This study enrolled 125 premenopausal women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by presence of vaginal irritation, discharge and 'fishy' odor, and Nugent criteria and detection of sialidase enzyme. The subjects were treated with oral metronidazole (500 mg) twice daily from days 1 to 7, and randomized to receive oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (1 x 10(9)) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (1 x 10(9)) or placebo twice daily from days 1 to 30. Primary outcome was cure of BV as determined by normal Nugent score, negative sialidase test and no symptoms or signs of BV at day 30. A total of 106 subjects returned for 30-day follow-up, of which 88% were cured in the antibiotic/probiotic group compared to 40% in the antibiotic/placebo group (p 10(5) CFU/ml) were recovered from the vagina of 96% probiotic-treated subjects compared to 53% controls at day 30. In summary, this study showed efficacious use of lactobacilli and antibiotic in the eradication of BV in black African women.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                25 September 2015
                : 9
                : 5345-5354
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland
                [2 ]Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
                [3 ]IBSS BIOMED SA, Kraków, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Magdalena Strus, Department of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków ul. Czysta 18, 31-121 Kraków, Poland, Tel +48 12 633 2567, Fax +48 12 423 3924, Email mbstrus@ 123456cyf-kr.edu.pl
                © 2015 Tomusiak et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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