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      Recent advances in magnetic targeting based on high magnetic field and magnetic particles

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          Abstract

          In the past few decades, the multifunctional magnetic drug carrier based on the magnetic nanoparticles and high magnetic field has been intensively researched. The magnetic drug carrier can be targeted to the tumour area not only by the chemical protocol but also by the physical one (external field). In this review, the authors first briefly discuss the fabrication process of magnetic drug carriers, which includes the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles, fabrication of magnetic drug carriers and conjugation of anti-tumour agents. Then different targeted protocols have been summarised, including passive targeting, biochemical active targeting and biophysical active targeting namely magnetic targeting (MT). Multiple MT results both in vitro and in vivo are introduced, in which two unconventional cases are emphasised and described. The first MT clinical research with 14 peoples was performed in the last century. A 0.5–0.8 T permanent magnet was attached to the tumour area when magnetic particles conjugated with epirubicin were injected. The side effect of epirubicin had been decreased, and the four patients showed the decreasing of a tumour which proved the feasibility of MT. Different from other targeting protocols, MT needs an extra external magnetic field. So various types of MT instruments have been shown in the final part of this review, including a single strong magnetic field, homemade electronic solenoid coil assay and commercial magnetic resonance imaging.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Size-controlled synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles.

          Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by high-temperature solution-phase reaction of Fe(acac)3 in phenyl ether with alcohol, oleic acid, and oleylamine. Seed-mediated growth is used to control Fe3O4 nanoparticle size, and variously sized nanoparticles from 3 to 20 nm have been produced. The as-synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have inverse spinel structure, and their assemblies can be transformed into gamma-Fe2O3 or alpha-Fe nanoparticle assemblies, depending on the annealing conditions. The reported procedure can be used as a general approach to various ferrite nanoparticles and nanoparticle superlattices.
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            Liposomes as nanomedical devices

            Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials.
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              We show that a relatively simple approach for controlling the colloidal synthesis of anisotropic cadmium selenide semiconductor nanorods can be extended to the size-controlled preparation of magnetic cobalt nanorods as well as spherically shaped nanocrystals. This approach helps define a minimum feature set needed to separately control the sizes and shapes of nanocrystals. The resulting cobalt nanocrystals produce interesting two- and three-dimensional superstructures, including ribbons of nanorods.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                HVE
                High Voltage
                High Volt.
                The Institution of Engineering and Technology
                2397-7264
                11 September 2017
                24 October 2017
                December 2017
                : 2
                : 4
                : 220-232
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy Sciences , Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China
                [2 ] Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Beijing 100019, People's Republic of China
                Article
                HVE.2017.0082 HVE.2017.0082.R1
                10.1049/hve.2017.0082

                This is an open access article published by the IET and CEPRI under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

                Page count
                Pages: 0
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 11545004
                Award ID: 51477167
                Categories
                Review Article

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