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      geoChronR – an R package to model, analyze, and visualize age-uncertain data

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      Geochronology
      Copernicus GmbH

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          Abstract

          Abstract. Chronological uncertainty is a hallmark of the paleoenvironmental sciences and geosciences. While many tools have been made available to researchers to quantify age uncertainties suitable for various settings and assumptions, disparate tools and output formats often discourage integrative approaches. In addition, associated tasks like propagating age-model uncertainties to subsequent analyses, and visualizing the results, have received comparatively little attention in the literature and available software. Here, we describe geoChronR, an open-source R package to facilitate these tasks. geoChronR is built around an emerging data standard (Linked PaleoData, or LiPD) and offers access to four popular age-modeling techniques (Bacon, BChron, OxCal, BAM). The output of these models is used to conduct ensemble data analysis, quantifying the impact of chronological uncertainties on common analyses like correlation, regression, principal component, and spectral analyses by repeating the analysis across a large collection of plausible age models. We present five real-world use cases to illustrate how geoChronR may be used to facilitate these tasks, visualize the results in intuitive ways, and store the results for further analysis, promoting transparency and reusability.

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          Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing

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            A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records

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              THE INTCAL20 NORTHERN HEMISPHERE RADIOCARBON AGE CALIBRATION CURVE (0–55 CAL kBP)

              Radiocarbon ( 14 C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14 C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14 C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14 C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14 C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14 C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Geochronology
                Geochronology
                Copernicus GmbH
                2628-3719
                2021
                March 12 2021
                : 3
                : 1
                : 149-169
                Article
                10.5194/gchron-3-149-2021
                b66cb1b0-cd98-4f77-89ec-473b05a61830
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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